(1/2284) Family study of inherited syndrome with multiple congenital deformities: symphalangism, carpal and tarsal fusion, brachydactyly, craniosynostosis, strabismus, hip osteochondritis.
A syndrome of brachydactyly (absence of some middle or distal phalanges), aplastic or hypoplastic nails, symphalangism (ankylois of proximal interphalangeal joints), synostosis of some carpal and tarsal bones, craniosynostosis, and dysplastic hip joints is reported in five members of an Italian family. It may represent a previously undescribed autosomal dominant trait. (+info)
(2/2284) Neuronal activity in somatosensory cortex of monkeys using a precision grip. III. Responses to altered friction perturbations.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the activity changes in single units of the somatosensory cortex in response to lubricating and adhesive coatings applied to a hand-held object. Three monkeys were trained to grasp an object between the thumb and index fingers and to lift and hold it stationary within a narrow position window for 1 s before release. Grip forces normal to the skin surface, load forces tangential to the skin surface, and the displacement of the object were measured on each trial. Adhesive (rosin) and lubricant (petroleum jelly) coatings were applied to the smooth metal surface of the object to alter the friction against the skin. In addition, neuronal activity evoked by force pulse-perturbations generating shear forces and slip on the skin were compared with the patterns of activity elicited by grasping and lifting the coated surfaces. Following changes in surface coatings, both monkeys modulated the rate at which grip forces normal to the skin surface and load forces tangential to the skin surface were applied during the lifting phase of the task. As a result, the ratio of the rates of change of the two forces was proportionately scaled to the surface coating properties with the more slippery surfaces, having higher ratios. This precise control of normal and tangential forces enabled the monkeys to generate adequate grip forces and prevent slip of the object. From a total of 386 single neurons recorded in the hand area of the somatosensory cortex, 92 were tested with at least 1 coating. Cell discharge changed significantly with changes in surface coating in 62 (67%) of these cells. Of these coating-related cells, 51 were tested with both an adhesive and lubricating coating, and 45 showed significant differences in activity between the untreated metal surface and either the lubricant or the adhesive coating. These cells were divided into three main groups on the basis of their response patterns. In the first group (group A), the peak discharge increased significantly when the grasped surface was covered with lubricant. These cells appeared to be selectively sensitive to slip of the object on the skin. The second group (group B) was less activated by the adhesive surface compared with either the untreated metal or the lubricated surface, and they responded mainly to variations in the force normal to the skin surface. These cells provide useful feedback for the control of grip force. The third group (group C) responded to both slips and to changes in forces tangential to the skin. Most of these cells responded with a biphasic pattern reflecting the bidirectional changes in load force as the object was first accelerated and then decelerated. One hundred sixty-eight of the 386 isolated neurons were tested with brief perturbations during the task. Of these, 147 (88%) responded to the perturbation with a significant change in activity. In most of the cells, the response to the perturbation was shorter than 100 ms with a mean latency of 44.1 +/- 16.3 (SD) ms. For each of the cell groups, the activity patterns triggered by the perturbations were consistent with the activity patterns generated during the grasping and lifting of the coated object. (+info)
(3/2284) Evidence for an eye-centered spherical representation of the visuomotor map.
During visually guided movement, visual coordinates of target location must be transformed into coordinates appropriate for movement. To investigate the representation of this visuomotor coordinate transformation, we examined changes in pointing behavior induced by a local visuomotor remapping. The visual feedback of finger position was limited to one location within the workspace, at which a discrepancy was introduced between the actual and visually perceived finger position. This remapping induced a change in pointing that extended over the entire workspace and was best captured by a spherical coordinate system centered near the eyes. (+info)
(4/2284) Common 3 and 10 Hz oscillations modulate human eye and finger movements while they simultaneously track a visual target.
1. A 10 Hz range centrally originating oscillation has been found to modulate slow finger movements and anticipatory smooth eye movements. To determine if an interaction or linkage occurs between these two central oscillations during combined visuo-manual tracking, frequency and coherence analysis were performed on finger and eye movements while they simultaneously tracked a visual target moving in intermittently visible sinusoidal patterns. 2. Two different frequencies of common or linked oscillation were found. The first, at 2-3 Hz, was dependent on visual feedback of target and finger tracking positions. The second, at around 10 Hz, still occurred when both target and finger positions were largely obscured, indicating that this common oscillation was generated internally by the motor system independent of visual feedback. Both 3 and 10 Hz oscillation frequencies were also shared by the right and left fingers if subjects used these together to track a visual target. 3. The linking of the 10 Hz range oscillations between the eyes and finger was task specific; it never occurred when eye and finger movements were made simultaneously and independently, but only when they moved simultaneously and followed the target together. However, although specific for tracking by the eyes and fingers together, the linking behaviour did not appear to be a prerequisite for such tracking, since significant coherence in the 10 Hz range was only present in a proportion of trials where these combined movements were made. 4. The experiments show that common oscillations may modulate anatomically very distinct structures, indicating that single central oscillations may have a widespread distribution in the central nervous system. The task-specific manifestation of the common oscillation in the eye and finger suggests that such mechanisms may have a functional role in hand-eye co-ordination. (+info)
(5/2284) Perfusion of the human finger during cold-induced vasodilatation.
We have investigated the effect of severe local cooling on the vasomotor activity of the arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) and other finger vessels. The right third finger was subjected to local cooling (3 degrees C) for 30-45 min in 21 healthy, thermoneutral subjects. Blood velocity in the third finger arteries of both hands was simultaneously recorded using ultrasound Doppler, and skin temperature and laser-Doppler flux from the pulp of the cooled finger were also recorded. The results demonstrate that the initial cold-induced vasoconstriction during severe local cooling involves constriction of the AVAs as well as the two main arteries supplying this finger. During cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD), the maximum velocity values were not significantly different from those before cooling. Furthermore, the velocity fluctuations in the cooled finger were in most subjects found to be synchronous with the velocity fluctuations in the control finger. This indicates that the large blood flow to the finger and the high skin temperature during CIVD are caused by relaxation of the smooth muscle cells of the AVAs. (+info)
(6/2284) The effects of posteroventral pallidotomy on the preparation and execution of voluntary hand and arm movements in Parkinson's disease.
We studied the effect of posteroventral pallidotomy on movement preparation and execution in 27 parkinsonian patients using various motor tasks. Patients were evaluated after overnight withdrawal of medication before and 3 months after unilateral pallidotomy. Surgery had no effect on initiation time in unwarned simple and choice reaction time tasks, whereas movement time measured during the same tasks was improved for the contralesional hand. Movement times also improved for isometric and isotonic ballistic movements. In contrast, repetitive, distal and fine movements measured in finger-tapping and pegboard tasks were not improved after pallidotomy. Preparatory processes were investigated using both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. A precued choice reaction time task suggested an enhancement of motor preparation for the contralesional hand. Similarly, movement-related cortical potentials showed an increase in the slope of the late component (NS2) when the patients performed joystick movements with the contralesional hand. However, no significant change was found for the early component (NS1) or when the patient moved the ipsilesional hand. The amplitude of the long-latency stretch reflex of the contralesional hand decreased after surgery. In summary, the data suggest that pallidotomy improved mainly the later stages of movement preparation and the execution of proximal movements with the contralesional limb. These results provide detailed quantitative data on the impact of posteroventral pallidotomy on previously described measures of upper limb akinesia in Parkinson's disease. (+info)
(7/2284) Brief vibrotactile stimulation does not increase cortical oxygen consumption when measured by single inhalation of positron emitting oxygen.
Vibrotactile stimulation of the hand elicits no increase in oxygen consumption commensurate with the increase in blood flow measured in human sensory cortex. To test the hypothesis that previous failures to detect a proportionate increase in oxygen consumption could be an artefact of the sequential bolus, or three-step, method used to measure this parameter in the human brain in vivo, the authors compared the measurements with the results of a novel single bolus, or one-step, method of measuring oxygen consumption. The time of completion of the three-step method was 40 to 50 minutes, whereas the one-step method lasted only 3 minutes. The baseline whole-brain oxygen consumption averaged 185 +/- 32 micromol hg(-1) min(-1) by the three-step method and 153 +/- 15 micromol hg(-1) min(-1) by the one-step method. Vibrotactile stimulation did not elicit a significant increase in oxygen consumption measured by either method. This finding rejects the hypothesis that failure to detect an increase of oxygen consumption could be an artefact caused by limitations of the method used previously. Conversely, it also rejects the hypothesis that observations of an increase of oxygen consumption by the new method are artefacts caused by limitations of the one-step method. (+info)
(8/2284) Oxygen consumption of cerebral cortex fails to increase during continued vibrotactile stimulation.
The coupling of oxidative metabolism to the blood flow of the sensory motor hand area is uncertain. The authors tested the hypothesis that continued vibrotactile stimulation ultimately must lead to increased oxygen consumption consumption. Twenty-two healthy right-handed young volunteers underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with the [(15)O]water bolus injection method to measure water clearance (K1H2O an index of blood flow (CBF), and with the [(15)O]oxygen bolus inhalation method to measure CMR(O2). The CMR(O2) was measured 30 seconds and 20 minutes after onset of intermittent (1 second on, 1 second off) vibrotactile stimulation (110 Hz) and compared with baseline measurements without stimulation. The K1H2O and CMR(O2) changes (delta K1H2O and delta CMR(O2)) were determined using intersubject averaging, together with magnetic resonance imaging based stereotaxic registration technique. The K1H2O increase was 21 +/- 4% and 12 +/- 4% at 30 seconds and 20 minutes after onset of stimulation, respectively. No significant increase of CMR(O2) was found until 30 minutes after the onset of stimulation. The authors conclude that blood flow and oxidative metabolism undergo uncoupling during sustained phasic stimulation of the sensory hand area. Therefore, neuronal activity stimulated in this manner does not rely on significantly increased oxidative phosphorylation. (+info)