(1/412) Cicatricial fibromatosis mimics metastatic medulloblastoma.
Cicatricial fibromatoses usually occur in the anterior abdominal wall or in the extremities, but rarely in the scalp or the soft tissues of the neck. We report a case of desmoid fibromatosis that developed in a 15-year-old boy 8 months after surgery for cerebellar medulloblastoma. (+info)
(2/412) Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria.
Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens. Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001). Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression. (+info)
(3/412) Infantile fibromatosis of the neck with intracranial involvement: MR and CT findings.
CT and MR imaging studies were performed in a 3-year-old boy with infantile fibromatosis arising from the infratemporal fossa and extending into the middle cranial fossa. On CT scans, the lesion was hyperattenuating (44-49 Hounsfield units [HU]), enhancing significantly after application of contrast material (63-66 HU). The MR images showed a multilobulated lesion of heterogeneous signal intensity. The tumor was markedly hypointense on T2-weighted images and slightly hypointense on T1-weighted images relative to brain tissue, iso- or slightly hyperintense relative to tongue muscle on both T2- and T1-weighted images, and enhanced strongly after administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine. (+info)
(4/412) Association of herpesvirus with fibropapillomatosis of the green turtle Chelonia mydas and the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta in Florida.
Sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a disease marked by proliferation of benign but debilitating cutaneous fibropapillomas and occasional visceral fibromas. Transmission experiments have implicated a chloroform-sensitive transforming agent present in filtered cell-free tumor homogenates in the etiology of FP. In this study, consensus primer PCR methodology was used to test the association of a chelonian herpesvirus with fibropapillomatosis. Fibropapilloma and skin samples were obtained from 17 green and 2 loggerhead turtles affected with FP stranded along the Florida coastline. Ninety-three cutaneous and visceral tumors from the 19 turtles, and 33 skin samples from 16 of the turtles, were tested. All turtles affected with FP had herpesvirus associated with their tumors as detected by PCR. Ninety-six percent (89/93) of the tumors, but only 9% (3/33) of the skin samples, from affected turtles contained detectable herpesvirus. The skin samples that contained herpesvirus were all within 2 cm of a fibropapilloma. Also, 1 of 11 scar tissue samples from sites where fibropapillomas had been removed 2 to 51 wk earlier from 5 green turtles contained detectable herpesvirus. None of 18 normal skin samples from 2 green and 2 loggerhead turtles stranded without FP contained herpesvirus. The data indicated that herpesvirus was detectable only within or close to tumors. To determine if the same virus infected both turtle species, partial nucleotide sequences of the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene were determined from 6 loggerhead and 2 green turtle samples. The sequences predicted that herpesvirus of loggerhead turtles differed from those of green turtles by only 1 of 60 amino acids in the sequence examined, indicating that a chelonian herpesvirus exhibiting minor intratypic variation was the only herpesvirus present in tumors of both green and loggerhead turtles. The FP-associated herpesvirus resisted cultivation on chelonian cell lines which support the replication of other chelonian herpesviruses. These results lead to the conclusion that a chelonian herpesvirus is regularly associated with fibropapillomatosis and is not merely an incidental finding in affected turtles. (+info)
(5/412) Predominance of beta-catenin mutations and beta-catenin dysregulation in sporadic aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumor).
Aggressive fibromatosis (also called desmoid tumor) occurs as a sporadic lesion or as part of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, which is caused by germ line mutations in the Adenomatous polyposis Coli (APC) gene. APC is involved in the regulation of the cellular level of beta-catenin, which is a mediator in Wnt signaling. Mutational analysis of the beta-catenin and APC genes was performed in 42 sporadic aggressive fibromatoses. Nine tumors had mutations in APC, and 22 had a point mutation in beta-catenin at either codon 45 or codon 41 (producing a stabilized beta-catenin protein product). Immunohistochemistry showed an elevated beta-catenin protein level in all tumors, regardless of mutational status. Beta-catenin localized to the nucleus, and was not tyrosine phosphorylated in the six tumors in which this was tested. The demonstration of mutations in two mediators in the Wnt-APC-beta-catenin pathway implicates beta-catenin stabilization as the key factor in the pathogenesis of aggressive fibromatosis. This is the first demonstration of somatic beta-catenin mutations in a locally invasive, but non metastatic lesion composed of spindle cells, illustrating the importance of beta-catenin stabilization in a variety of cell types and neoplastic processes. Moreover, this tumor has one of the highest reported frequencies of beta-catenin mutations of any tumor type. (+info)
(6/412) Cardiac valvular papillary fibroelastoma: a report of 2 cases.
Papillary fibroelastomas are rare cardiac valve tumors with potential for life-threatening complications such as stroke or sudden death. We report 2 cases of papillary fibroelastoma that were found by echocardiography. The 1st tumor arose from the mitral valve in a patient who presented after multiple transient neurologic events. The 2nd tumor arose from the aortic valve and was found incidentally during coronary artery bypass grafting. Both patients underwent successful surgical removal of the tumor. (+info)
(7/412) Benign small bowel tumor.
The clinical record and histologic sections of 84 cases of benign small bowel tumor are reviewed. Manifestations of systemic diseases, congenital anomalies, and lesions of either the ileocecal valve or periampullary region were excluded. In the same time span there were 96 small bowel malignancies. Clinical presentation, pathologic findings, management and result are compared to the collected published experience of about 2000 cases. There were 36 leiomyomas, 22 lipomas, 9 angiomas, 6 neurofibromas and 4 fibromas. Thirty-six men and 48 women were affected; the majority in their fifth and sixth decade. Seventy-eight were operative and 6 autopsy diagnoses. The most common symptom was obstruction (42%) followed by hemorrhage (34%) and pain (22%), relative frequency differing for the various specific tumors. There were rarely significant physical findings. A diagnosis of small bowel tumor was made radiologically in 30 patients. Because of the nonspecificity of other signs and symptoms, an acute awareness of the possibility of small bowel tumor is mandatory for preoperative anticipation of the diagnosis. Local resection was performed in all with no deaths or significant postoperative complications. (+info)
(8/412) Frequent activation of AKT2 and induction of apoptosis by inhibition of phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase/Akt pathway in human ovarian cancer.
We previously demonstrated that AKT2, a member of protein kinase B family, is activated by a number of growth factors via Ras and PI 3-kinase signaling pathways. Here, we report the frequent activation of AKT2 in human primary ovarian cancer and induction of apoptosis by inhibition of phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI 3-kinase)/Akt pathway. In vitro AKT2 kinase assay analyses in 91 ovarian cancer specimens revealed elevated levels of AKT2 activity (>3-fold) in 33 cases (36.3%). The majority of tumors displaying activated AKT2 were high grade and stages III and IV. Immunostaining and Western blot analyses using a phospho-ser-473 Akt antibody that detects the activated form of AKT2 (AKT2 phosphorylated at serine-474) confirmed the frequent activation of AKT2 in ovarian cancer specimens. Phosphorylated AKT2 in tumor specimens localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm but not the nucleus. To address the mechanism of AKT2 activation, we measured in vitro PI 3-kinase activity in 43 ovarian cancer specimens, including the 33 cases displaying elevated AKT2 activation. High levels of PI 3-kinase activity were observed in 20 cases, 15 of which also exhibited AKT2 activation. The remaining five cases displayed elevated AKT1 activation. Among the cases with elevated AKT2, but not PI 3-kinase activity (18 cases), three showed down-regulation of PTEN protein expression. Inhibition of PI 3-kinase/AKT2 by wortmannin or LY294002 induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells exhibiting activation of the PI 3-kinase/AKT2 pathway. These findings demonstrate for the first time that activation of AKT2 is a common occurrence in human ovarian cancer and that PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway may be an important target for ovarian cancer intervention. (+info)