Comparison of the fibrin-binding activities in the N- and C-termini of fibronectin.
Fibronectin (Fn) binds to fibrin in clots by covalent and non-covalent interactions. The N- and C-termini of Fn each contain one non-covalent fibrin-binding site, which are composed of type 1 (F1) structural repeats. We have previously localized the N-terminal site to the fourth and fifth F1 repeats (4F1.5F1). In the current studies, using proteolytic and recombinant proteins representing both the N- and C-terminal fibrin-binding regions, we localized and characterized the C-terminal fibrin-binding site, compared the relative fibrin-binding activities of both sites and determined the contribution of each site to the fibrin-binding activity of intact Fn. By fibrin-affinity chromatography, a protein composed of the 10F1 repeat through to the C-terminus of Fn (10F1-COOH), expressed in COS-1 cells, and 10F1-12F1, produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, displayed fibrin-binding activity. However, since 10F1 and 10F1.11F1 were not active, the presence of 12F1 is required for fibrin binding. A proteolytic fragment of 14.4 kDa, beginning 14 residues N-terminal to 10F1, was isolated from the fibrin-affinity matrix. Radio-iodinated 14.4 kDa fibrin-binding peptide/protein (FBP) demonstrated a dose-dependent and saturable binding to fibrin-coated wells that was both competitively inhibited and reversed by unlabelled 14.4 kDa FBP. Comparison of the fibrin-binding affinities of proteolytic FBPs from the N-terminus (25.9 kDa FBP), the C-terminus (14.4 kDa) and intact Fn by ELISA yielded estimated Kd values of 216, 18 and 2.1 nM, respectively. The higher fibrin-binding affinity of the N-terminus was substantiated by the ability of both a recombinant 4F1.5F1 and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to this site to maximally inhibit biotinylated Fn binding to fibrin by 80%, and by blocking the 90% inhibitory activity of a polyclonal anti-Fn, by absorption with the 25.9 kDa FBP. We propose that whereas the N-terminal site appears to contribute to most of the binding activity of native Fn to fibrin, the specific binding of the C-terminal site may strengthen this interaction. (+info)
Exosites 1 and 2 are essential for protection of fibrin-bound thrombin from heparin-catalyzed inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II.
Assembly of ternary thrombin-heparin-fibrin complexes, formed when fibrin binds to exosite 1 on thrombin and fibrin-bound heparin binds to exosite 2, produces a 58- and 247-fold reduction in the heparin-catalyzed rate of thrombin inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II, respectively. The greater reduction for heparin cofactor II reflects its requirement for access to exosite 1 during the inhibitory process. Protection from inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II requires ligation of both exosites 1 and 2 because minimal protection is seen when exosite 1 variants (gamma-thrombin and thrombin Quick 1) or an exosite 2 variant (Arg93 --> Ala, Arg97 --> Ala, and Arg101 --> Ala thrombin) is substituted for thrombin. Likewise, the rate of thrombin inhibition by the heparin-independent inhibitor, alpha1-antitrypsin Met358 --> Arg, is decreased less than 2-fold in the presence of soluble fibrin and heparin. In contrast, thrombin is protected from inhibition by a covalent antithrombin-heparin complex, suggesting that access of heparin to exosite 2 of thrombin is hampered when ternary complex formation occurs. These results reveal the importance of exosites 1 and 2 of thrombin in assembly of the ternary complex and the subsequent protection of thrombin from inhibition by heparin-catalyzed inhibitors. (+info)
Isolation of SMTP-3, 4, 5 and -6, novel analogs of staplabin, and their effects on plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis.
Four novel triprenyl phenol metabolites, designated SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6, have been isolated from cultures of Stachybotrys microspora IFO 30018 by solvent extraction and successive chromatographic fractionation using silica gel and silica ODS columns. A combination of spectroscopic analyses showed that SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6 are staplabin analogs, containing a serine, a phenylalanine, a leucine or a tryptophan moiety in respective molecules in place of the N-carboxybutyl portion of the staplabin molecule. SMTP-4, -5, and -6 were active at 0.15 to 0.3 mM in enhancing urokinase-catalyzed plasminogen activation and plasminogen binding to fibrin, as well as plasminogen- and urokinase-mediated fibrinolysis. On the other hand, the concentration of staplabin required to exert such effects was 0.4 to 0.6 mM, and SMTP-3 was inactive at concentrations up to 0.45 mM. (+info)
Blood-borne tissue factor: another view of thrombosis.
Arterial thrombosis is considered to arise from the interaction of tissue factor (TF) in the vascular wall with platelets and coagulation factors in circulating blood. According to this paradigm, coagulation is initiated after a vessel is damaged and blood is exposed to vessel-wall TF. We have examined thrombus formation on pig arterial media (which contains no stainable TF) and on collagen-coated glass slides (which are devoid of TF) exposed to flowing native human blood. In both systems the thrombi that formed during a 5-min perfusion stained intensely for TF, much of which was not associated with cells. Antibodies against TF caused approximately 70% reduction in the amount of thrombus formed on the pig arterial media and also reduced thrombi on the collagen-coated glass slides. TF deposited on the slides was active, as there was abundant fibrin in the thrombi. Factor VIIai, a potent inhibitor of TF, essentially abolished fibrin production and markedly reduced the mass of the thrombi. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed TF-positive membrane vesicles that we frequently observed in large clusters near the surface of platelets. TF, measured by factor Xa formation, was extracted from whole blood and plasma of healthy subjects. By using immunostaining, TF-containing neutrophils and monocytes were identified in peripheral blood; our data raise the possibility that leukocytes are the main source of blood TF. We suggest that blood-borne TF is inherently thrombogenic and may be involved in thrombus propagation at the site of vascular injury. (+info)
Use of high-intensity focused ultrasound to control bleeding.
OBJECTIVE: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be effective in controlling hemorrhage from punctures in blood vessels. The objective of the current study was to investigate the capability of HIFU to stop bleeding after a more severe type of vascular injury, namely longitudinal incisions of arteries and veins. METHODS: The superficial femoral arteries, common femoral arteries, carotid arteries, and jugular veins of four anesthetized pigs were exposed surgically. A longitudinal incision, 2 to 8 mm in length, was produced in the vessel. HIFU treatment was applied within 5 seconds of the onset of the bleeding. The HIFU probe consisted of a high-power, 3.5-MHz, piezoelectric transducer with an ellipsoidal focal spot that was 1 mm in cross section and 9 mm in axial dimension. The entire incision area was scanned with the HIFU beam at a rate of 15 to 25 times/second and a linear displacement of 5 to 10 mm. A total of 76 incisions and HIFU treatments were performed. RESULTS: Control of bleeding (major hemosatsis) was achieved in all 76 treatments, with complete hemostasis achieved in 69 treatments (91%). The average treatment times of major and complete hemostasis were 17 and 25 seconds, respectively. After the treatment, 74% of the vessels in which complete hemostasis was achieved were patent with distal blood flow and 26% were occluded. The HIFU-treated vessels showed a consistent coagulation of the adventitia surrounding the vessels, with a remarkably localized injury to the vessel wall. Extensive fibrin deposition at the treatment site was observed. CONCLUSION: HIFU may provide a useful method of achieving hemostasis for arteries and veins in a variety of clinical applications. (+info)
Chronic protein undernutrition and an acute inflammatory stimulus elicit different protein kinetic responses in plasma but not in muscle of piglets.
The changes in protein metabolism of severe childhood malnutrition are generally perceived as a metabolic adaptation to chronic protein undernutrition. However, severe malnutrition is invariably accompanied by infections which also have profound effects on protein metabolism. This study aimed to distinguish the effect of protein undernutrition from that of an inflammatory stimulus on muscle and plasma protein synthesis rates. Two groups of five piglets consumed diets containing either 23% or 3% protein for 4 wk. They then were infused intravenously with 2H3-leucine before and 48 h after subcutaneous injections of turpentine to measure the fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of muscle protein and both the FSR and the absolute synthesis rates (ASR) of albumin and fibrinogen. Prior to turpentine injection, compared to control piglets, protein-deficient piglets had significantly lower muscle FSR and plasma concentrations of both albumin and fibrinogen, although only albumin had lower FSR and ASR. Turpentine injection decreased muscle FSR but increased the FSR, ASR and plasma concentrations of both albumin and fibrinogen in control piglets. In protein-deficient piglets, the inflammatory stress caused a further decrease in muscle protein FSR and in plasma albumin concentration despite marked increases in albumin FSR and ASR. Fibrinogen FSR, ASR and plasma concentration were increased. We conclude that protein undernutrition and inflammation elicit the same kinetic response in muscle protein but different kinetic responses in plasma proteins. Furthermore, whereas protein deficiency reduces the plasma albumin pool via a reduction in albumin synthesis, inflammation reduces it through a stimulation of catabolism and/or loss from the intravascular space. (+info)
Differential regulation of beta1 integrins by chemoattractants regulates neutrophil migration through fibrin.
Chemoattractants differ in their capacity to stimulate neutrophils to adhere to and to migrate through matrices containing fibrin. Formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP) stimulates neutrophils to adhere closely to, but not to migrate into, fibrin gels. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) stimulates neutrophils to adhere loosely to and to migrate through fibrin gels. We report that alpha5beta1 integrins regulate the different migratory behaviors on fibrin gels of neutrophils in response to these chemoattractants. fMLP, but not LTB4, activated neutrophil beta1 integrins, as measured by binding of mAb 15/7 to an activation epitope on the beta1 integrins. Antibodies or peptides that block alpha5beta1 integrins prevented fMLP-stimulated neutrophils from forming zones of close apposition on fibrin and reversed fMLP's inhibitory effect on neutrophil chemotaxis through fibrin. In contrast, neither peptides nor antibodies that block beta1 integrins affected the capacity of LTB4-stimulated neutrophils to form zones of loose apposition or to migrate through fibrin gels. These results suggest that chemoattractants generate at least two different messages that direct neutrophils, and perhaps other leukocytes, to accumulate at specific anatomic sites: a general message that induces neutrophils to crawl and a specific message that prepares neutrophils to stop when they contact appropriate matrix proteins for activated beta1 integrins. (+info)
Malfunction of Bjork-Shiley valve prosthesis in tricuspid position.
Eight months after triple valve replacement with Bjork-Shiley tilting disc valves a patient developed symptoms and signs suggesting malfunction of the prosthesis in the tricuspid position. This was confirmed by echocardiography and angiocardiography, and at operation thedisc of the prosthesis was found to be stuck half-open by fibrin and clot. A further 11 patients with the same tupe of prosthesis in the triscupid position were then studied by phonocardiography and echocardiography. In one of these the prosthesis was found to be stuck and this was confirmed by angiocardiography and surgery. These 2 cases are reported in detail and the findings in the other 10 are discussed. The implications of this high incidence of malfunction of the Bjork-Shiley prosthesis in the tricuspid position are considered. Echocardiography appears to be essential in the follow-up of such patients. (+info)