Molecular cloning and expression of Galbeta1,3GalNAc alpha2, 3-sialyltransferase from human fetal liver.
Based on the sequences of the highly conserved segments in the previously cloned sialyltransferases, a cDNA encoding Galbeta1, 3GalNAc alpha2,3-sialyltransferase (SIATFL) has been isolated from human fetal liver. Expression analysis of the gene has been performed with various carcinoma cell lines, fetal tissues, fetal and adult liver and both hepatoma and the surrounding tissue from the same liver. The SIATFL gene was expressed poorly in fetal liver and in adult liver, slightly in hepatoma and highly in the surrounding tissue of hepatoma. The cDNA encoding the putative active domain was expressed in COS-1, Escherichia coli, and Pichia pastoris. The recombinant protein expressed in COS-1 could catalyse the transfer of NeuAc from CMP-NeuAc to asialo-fetuin. No enzyme activity was detected with a 32-kDa protein in E. coli and both 32-kDa and 41-kDa proteins in P. pastoris. These results suggested that correct glycosylation of the enzyme might play a key role in its folding that may be directly related to the enzymatic activity. (+info)
Characterization of recombinant and plant-derived mistletoe lectin and their B-chains.
Mistletoe lectin I (pML) and its isoforms ML II and III constitute the active principle in extract preparations from mistletoe, commonly used as immunomodulator in adjuvant tumour therapy. The heterodimeric disulfide-linked cytotoxic protein is classified as type II ribosome inactivating protein (RIP). Recently, the sequence coding for the mistletoe lectin prepro-protein was identified and the existence of a single intron-free gene was shown [Eck, J., Langer, M., Mockel, B., Baur, A., Rothe, M., Zinke, H. & Lentzen, H. (1999) Eur. J. Biochem. 264, 775-784]. The aim of this study was to prepare pure and homogeneous rMLB-chain as well as rML heterodimer for studying the carbohydrate binding specificity of recombinant versus natural protein and its contribution to the observed cytotoxic effect. Expression in E. coli resulted in the production of insoluble protein (inclusion bodies). A procedure for generating correctly folded, biochemically and biologically active rMLB was established starting from the insoluble single chain. Carbohydrate binding and specificity of pMLB and rMLB were analysed by a competitive enzyme linked lectin assay (ELLA). Asialofetuin was able to compete with binding of both chains (50% at 0.8 microM). The specificity of the B-chains to lactose was more distinct with halfmaximal competition at 4.9 mM (pMLB) and > 90 mM (rMLB), respectively. Furthermore, in a coassociation process rMLA- and rMLB inclusion bodies were associated in one step by defined dilution yielding active rML-heterodimer. The activities of recombinant (rML) and plant derived mistletoe lectin (pML) were compared. Cytotoxicity was determined using MOLT-4 cells and enzymatic rRNA N-glycosidase activity was measured in a coupled transcription/translation assay. The IC50 values of the two heterodimers were similar in both assays; rMLB-chain did not show any cytotoxic effect. In the ELLA with lactose as a competitor 50% competition of binding to asialofetuin was achieved at 1.6 mM (rML) and 1.8 mM (pML). Hence, using three different assays we found no significant differences between the recombinant protein and the glycosylated form of ML. Comparing the biological activities of the single chains with those of the heterodimer we conclude, that both, lectin activity and the rRNA N-glycosidase activity, are prerequisites for the cytotoxic effects on target cells. (+info)
Evaluation of the components of the chylomicron remnant removal mechanism by use of the isolated perfused mouse liver.
The isolated perfused mouse liver was utilized to evaluate the relative contribution of various molecules believed to participate in the removal of chylomicron remnants by the liver. Sixty percent of asialofetuin was removed from the perfusate per pass; bovine serum albumin was not removed. Normal mouse livers removed chylomicron remnants more efficiently (40-50%/pass) than nascent chylomicrons (10-20%/pass). The fractional removal rate of remnants decreased as their concentration in the perfusate increased demonstrating saturability. Remnant removal by livers of low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRD) mice paralleled that of normal mice at low remnant concentrations (0.05, 0.2 microg protein/ml); as concentration increased (4-16 microg protein/ml), removal by LDLRD livers was reduced. About 50% of the capacity to remove remnants was due to the LDL receptor. The role of the LDLR-related protein (LRP) was estimated using the receptor-associated protein (RAP). Four microg/ml of RAP inhibited only LRP; it reduced the removal of remnants by 30-40% in normal livers. When RAP was included in the perfusate of LDLRD livers, remnant removal persisted but was diminished, particularly late in the perfusion; the capacity was approximately 30% of controls. The present study has established that there is more than one mechanism operating for the removal of chylomicron remnants by the liver, provides estimates of the concentration of each to the removal of remnants, and indicates a method for further studies. It is concluded that in normal livers, the LDL receptor has the greatest capacity for removing chylomicron remnants. The LRP contributes to the process as well and a third component, perhaps "sequestration," accounts for up to 30% of the capacity for the initial removal of chylomicron remnants. (+info)
The SRC family protein tyrosine kinase p62yes controls polymeric IgA transcytosis in vivo.
Transcytosis of polymeric immunoglobulin A (pIgA) across epithelial cells is mediated by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Binding of pIgA to pIgR stimulates transcytosis of the pIgA-pIgR complex via a signal transduction pathway that is dependent on a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) of the SRC family. Here we identify the PTK as p62yes. We demonstrate the specific physical and functional association of the pIgR with p62yes in rodent liver. Analysis of p62yes knockout mice revealed a dramatic reduction in the association of tyrosine kinase activity with the pIgR and in transcytosis of pIgA. We conclude that p62yes controls pIgA transcytosis in vivo. (+info)
Hepatic fibronectin matrix turnover in rats: involvement of the asialoglycoprotein receptor.
Fibronectin (Fn) is a major adhesive protein found in the hepatic extracellular matrix (ECM). In adult rats, the in vivo turnover of plasma Fn (pFn) incorporated into the liver ECM is relatively rapid, i.e., <24 h, but the regulation of its turnover has not been defined. We previously reported that cellular Fn (cFn) and enzymatically desialylated plasma Fn (aFn), both of which have a high density of exposed terminal galactose residues, rapidly interact with hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-R) in association with their plasma clearance after intravenous infusion. With the use of adult male rats (250-350 g) and measurement of the deoxycholate (DOC)-insoluble (125)I-labeled Fn in the liver, we determined whether the ASGP-R system can also influence the hepatic matrix retention of various forms of Fn. There was a rapid deposition of (125)I-pFn, (125)I-aFn, and (125)I-cFn into the liver ECM after their intravenous injection. Although (125)I-pFn was slowly lost from the liver matrix over 24 h, more than 90% of the incorporated (125)I-aFn and (125)I-cFn was cleared within 4 h (P < 0.01). Intravenous infusion of excess nonlabeled asialofetuin to competitively inhibit the hepatic ASGP-R delayed the rapid turnover of both aFn and cFn already incorporated within the ECM of the liver. ECM retention of both (125)I-aFn and (125)I-cFn was also less than (125)I-pFn (P < 0.01) as determined in vitro using liver slices preloaded in vivo with either tracer form of Fn. The hepatic ASGP-R appears to participate in the turnover of aFn and cFn within the liver ECM, whereas a non-ASGP-R-associated endocytic pathway apparently influences the removal of normal pFn incorporated within the hepatic ECM, unless it becomes locally desialylated. (+info)
LDL receptor-related protein mediates cell-surface clustering and hepatic sequestration of chylomicron remnants in LDLR-deficient mice.
It has been proposed that in the liver, chylomicron remnants (lipoproteins carrying dietary lipid) may be sequestered before being internalized by hepatocytes. To study this, chylomicron remnants labeled with a fluorescent dye were perfused into isolated livers of LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-deficient) mice (Ldlr(-/-)) and examined by confocal microscopy. In contrast to livers from normal mice, there was clustering of the chylomicron remnants on the cell surface in the space of DISSE: These remnant clusters colocalized with clusters of LDLR-related protein (LRP) and could be eliminated by low concentrations of receptor-associated protein, an inhibitor of LRP. When competed with ligands of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the remnant clusters still appeared but were fewer in number, although syndecans (membrane HSPGs) colocalized with the remnant clusters. This suggests that the clustering of remnants is not dependent on syndecans but that the syndecans may modify the binding of remnants. These results establish that sequestration is a novel process, the clustering of remnants in the space of DISSE: The clustering involves remnants binding to the LRP, and this may be stabilized by binding with syndecans, eventually followed by endocytosis. (+info)
Structure, properties and enhanced expression of galactose-binding C-type lectins in mucous cells of gills from freshwater Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica).
Using a Japanese-eel (Anguilla japonica) gill cDNA subtraction library, two novel beta-d-galactose-binding lectins were identified that belong to group VII of the animal C-type lectin family. The eel C-type lectins, termed eCL-1 and eCL-2, are simple lectins composed of 163 amino acid residues, including a 22-residue signal peptide for secretion and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of approximately 130 residues typical of C-type lectins. The galactose specificity of the CRD was suggested by the presence of a QPD motif and confirmed by a competitive binding assay. Using Ruthenium Red staining, the lectins were shown to bind Ca(2+) ions. SDS/PAGE showed that native eCL-1 and eCL-2 have an SDS-resistant octameric structure (a tetramer of disulphide-linked dimers). Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrated high-level expression of eCL-1 and eCL-2 mRNAs and their protein products in gills from freshwater eels, which decreased markedly when the eels were transferred from freshwater to seawater. Immunohistochemistry showed that the eel lectins are localized in the exocrine mucous cells of the gill. (+info)
Sialyltransferase activity of human plasma and aortic intima is enhanced in atherosclerosis.
Sialyltransferase activity has been determined in membrane preparations containing the Golgi apparatus that were isolated from atherosclerotic and normal human aortic intima as well as in plasma of patients with documented atherosclerosis and healthy donors by measuring the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) from CMP-NeuAc to asialofetuin. The asialofetuin sialyltransferase activity was found to be 2 times higher in the atherosclerotic intima as compared to the normal intima and 2-fold higher in patients' plasma than in that from healthy donors. The mean values of the apparent Michaelis constant (K(m)) for the sialylating enzyme for both tissues did not differ and were close for the intima and plasma. In contrast, the maximal velocity (V(max)) was 2 times higher for the atherosclerotic intima than for the normal intima and 3 times higher for patients' plasma than for that of the donors. These results suggest that the activity of asialofetuin sialyltransferases of aortal intima is enhanced in atherosclerosis as is the secretion of their soluble forms into patients' plasma. (+info)