Comparison of disaturated phosphatidylcholine and fetal lung maturity surfactant/albumin ratio in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies.
We studied fetal lung maturity (FLM) by the amniotic fluid surfactant/albumin (FLM S/A) ratio and the disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) amniotic fluid levels at different gestational ages in diabetic (179 women with type 1 diabetes mellitus antedating pregnancy; infants delivered within 72 hours after amniotic fluid testing for DSPC level and FLM S/A ratio) and nondiabetic pregnancies (2 independent nondiabetic groups, 300 for FLM S/A ratio and 1,231 for DSPC level). The degree of maternal glycemia during gestation was estimated by serial measurements of hemoglobin A1. Multiple regression analyses, including gestational age (GAs) and diabetic status as independent variables and FLM S/A ratio and DSPC level as dependent variables, revealed significant effect from diabetic status and GA for FLM S/A ratio and a significant effect from GA but not from diabetic status for DSPC level. Glucose levels were controlled adequately throughout gestation as reflected by mean total glycated hemoglobin levels. Amniotic fluid levels of DSPC, the major surface tension-lowering component of pulmonary surfactant, are not significantly different between diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies at different GAs. (+info)
Lack of a role for cyclic nucleotide gated cation channels in lung liquid absorption in fetal sheep.
1. Late gestation fetal sheep were chronically catheterised in utero to allow measurement of the rate of production of lung liquid (Jv) from 132-143 days gestation (term, 147 days), and to test the hypothesis that cyclic nucleotide gated cation channels mediate a component of fetal lung liquid absorption. 2. In eight experiments, 0.5 microg min-1 adrenaline caused a significant (P < 0.005) reduction in Jv from +18. 12 +/- 3.52 to -10.27 +/- 5.26 ml h-1. Dichlorobenzamil (a blocker of cyclic nucleotide gated cation channels) at 1.5 x 10-5 M did not significantly inhibit the adrenaline-induced lung liquid absorption (Jv dichlorobenzamil, -5.77 +/- 2.78 ml h-1; P > 0.1) when the data were grouped, but did exert a significant gestational effect (r = 0. 90, P < 0.01). Subsequent addition of 10-4 M amiloride (a blocker of epithelial sodium channels) abolished the adrenaline-induced absorption of lung liquid (mean Jv amiloride, +6.45 +/- 1.59 ml h-1; P < 0.01 relative to Jv adrenaline and P < 0.005 relative to Jv dichlorobenzamil). 3. In seven experiments, 0.5 microg min-1 adrenaline caused a significant (P < 0.0005) reduction in Jv from +18.95 +/- 2. 98 to -10.08 +/- 3.75 ml h-1. Amiloride (10-4 M) inhibited the adrenaline response (Jv amiloride, +5.46 +/- 1.09 ml h-1; P < 0.005). However, subsequent addition of 1.5 x 10-5 M dichlorobenzamil had no additive effect to that of amiloride (Jv dichlorobenzamil, +4.58 +/- 0.93 ml h-1; P > 0.1). 4. In six experiments, the cGMP analogue 8-Br-cGMP at 10-4 M caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in Jv from +15.20 +/- 2.81 to +11.63 +/- 1.71 ml h-1. Amiloride (10-4 M) did not block the effect of 8-Br-cGMP (Jv amiloride, +14.00 +/- 2.49 ml h-1; not significantly different from 8-Br-cGMP). Subsequent addition of 1.5 x 10-5 M dichlorobenzamil also did not block the effect of 8-Br-cGMP (Jv dichlorobenzamil, +11.37 +/- 1.22 ml h-1; not significantly different from either Jv amiloride or Jv 8-Br-cGMP). 5. We conclude that, in fetal sheep, neither adrenaline nor cGMP stimulate lung liquid absorption by actions on cyclic nucleotide gated cation channels, and that the effect of cGMP on fetal lung liquid secretion is minor and does not involve epithelial sodium channels. The effect of dichlorobenzamil, when given before amiloride, was probably due to an action on amiloride sensitive epithelial sodium channels. (+info)
Ovine surfactant protein cDNAs: use in studies on fetal lung growth and maturation after prolonged hypoxemia.
cDNAs for ovine surfactant-associated protein (SP) A, SP-B, and SP-C have been cloned and shown to possess strong similarity to cDNAs for surfactant apoproteins in other species. These reagents were employed to examine the effect of fetal hypoxia on the induction of surfactant apoprotein expression in the fetal lamb. Postnatal lung function is dependent on adequate growth and maturation during fetal development. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I and IGF-II, which are present in all fetal tissues studied, possess potent mitogenic and proliferative actions, and their effects can be modulated by IGF-specific binding proteins (IGFBPs). Hypoxia can lead to increases in circulating cortisol and catecholamines that can influence lung maturation. Therefore, the effects of mild hypoxia in chronically catheterized fetal lambs at gestational days 126-130 and 134-136 (term 145 days) on the expression of pulmonary surfactant apoproteins and IGFBPs were examined. Mild hypoxia for 48 h resulted in an increase in plasma cortisol that was more pronounced at later gestation, and in these animals, there was a twofold increase in SP-A mRNA. SP-B mRNA levels also increased twofold, but this was not significant. SP-C mRNA was not altered. No significant changes in apoprotein mRNA were observed with the younger fetuses. However, these younger animals selectively exhibited reduced IGFBP-5 mRNA levels. IGF-I mRNA was also reduced at 126-130 days, although this conclusion is tentative due to low abundance. IGF-II levels were not affected at either gestational age. We conclude that these data suggest that mild prolonged fetal hypoxia produces alterations that could affect fetal cellular differentiation early in gestation and can induce changes consistent with lung maturation closer to term. (+info)
Antenatal retinoic acid does not alter alveolization or postnatal lung function in preterm sheep.
Retinoic acid exposure has been shown to promote surfactant production in foetal rats and to promote alveolization in neonatal rats. It was hypothesized that antenatal retinoic acid treatment would promote alveolization and accelerate functional maturation in the lungs of late gestation preterm sheep. Foetuses received a single i.m. injection of all-trans retinoic acid (RA, 20 mg x kg(-1)) or vehicle control at 115 days gestation (term=150 days) and were delivered at 125 days gestation. To examine the longer term effects of RA on alveolization a second group of animals received RA or vehicle at 121 days gestation and were delivered at 146 days gestation. Liver retinol levels at time of delivery were 2-3-fold higher in both preterm and near-term RA treated animals, indicating a significant impact of RA treatment on retinol metabolism. Dynamic compliance, gas exchange, lung gas volume and saturated phosphatidylcholine pool size at 125 days were unaffected by antenatal RA treatment. Alveolar volume, wall thickness and number at 125 or 146 days were also unaffected by RA treatment. Retinoic acid, as administered in this study, does not appear to accelerate structural or functional maturation of the foetal sheep lung. Response to retinoic acid may be species dependent, highlighting a need for caution when interpreting results from animal based studies. (+info)
The role of parathyroid hormone-related protein in intra-tracheal fluid.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a multi-functional protein, is produced by many tissues in fetus. PTHrP concentration in amniotic fluid is reported to be significantly higher than in either fetal or maternal plasma. Other investigators have reported that PTHrP in amniotic fluid is derived mainly from amnion. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of fetus to PTHrP in amniotic fluid and the role of PTHrP in human fetal lung tissue. Samples of amniotic fluid, neonatal intra-tracheal fluid, gastric fluid, and the first urine of neonates were obtained at the time of elective cesarean section (n=11), and the concentrations of PTHrP were measured. The PTHrP level in intra-tracheal fluid (41.0+/-19.6 pmol/l, mean+/-SD) was significantly higher than the levels in amniotic fluid (22.1+/-0.8), neonatal gastric fluid (13.5+/-2.5), first urine (0.95+/-0.6), umbilical cord venous and arterial plasma (1.35+/-0.2, 1.63+/-0.3) and maternal plasma (1.05+/-0.1). PTHrP and PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA were detected in human lung tissue obtained from a fetus stillborn at 36 weeks of gestation. The effects of PTHrP on fetal lung maturation were studied in H441 cells from a human lung epithelial cell line. PTHrP (10(-7)M) significantly suppressed cell proliferation (p<0.05) to approximately 80% of the control level, while administration of PTHrP significantly increased surfactant protein A production (p<0.01). We first demonstrated the high concentration of PTHrP in intra-tracheal fluid that may suggest the positive production of this protein from the fetal lung. The results obtained by in vitro study using a human lung epithelial cell line suggest that PTHrP derived from the fetal lung might modulate its own maturation. (+info)
Lung development following diaphragmatic hernia in the fetal rabbit.
Diaphragmatic hernia was created in 39 rabbit fetuses on day 23 of gestation. Fifteen fetuses underwent a sham thoracotomy (SHAM). Thirty-nine non-operated littermates served as internal controls (CTR). Fetuses were harvested by Caesarean section on days 25, 27, 29 and 30 of gestation. Pulmonary response was evaluated by lung to body weight ratio (LBWR), morphometry, and density of type II pneumocytes. No difference was found between CTR and SHAM fetuses at term. CDH fetuses had smaller lungs (LBWR 0.014 +/- 0.004 versus 0.030 +/- 0.04 in CTR, P < 0.0001), a less complex acinus [mean terminal bronchial density (MTBD) 1.786 +/- 0.408 versus 0.917 +/- 0. 188, P < 0.0001], thicker alveolar septa [mean wall transection length (LMW) 0.0221 +/- 0.008 versus 0.0142 +/- 0.002, P = 0.0003], and a lower type II cell count (144.5 +/- 19.33 versus 216.2 +/- 27.85 per high power field, P < 0.0001). The differences in MTBD and LMW were significant from gestational day 25 onwards, and the differences in type II cell count from day 27 onwards. Surgical diaphragmatic hernia in rabbit fetuses in the late pseudoglandular phase reproduces many features of the pulmonary hypoplasia associated with human congenital diaphragmatic hernia, including the delayed maturation. The effects are present within 2 days following experimental diaphragmatic hernia and progress over time. (+info)
Fetal brain disruption sequence in a newborn infant with a history of cordocentesis at 21 weeks gestation.
The case is reported of a full term infant with severe microcephaly, overlapping sutures, prominence of the occipital bone, and scalp rugae. No other associated malformations were observed. The only obstetric history of interest was the performance of cordocentesis at 21 weeks gestational age because of low maternal alpha fetoprotein levels. Ultrasound scans performed until then were normal. Cranial growth retardation was detected on ultrasound scanning at 25 weeks and intrauterine growth retardation as well as severe microcephaly at 34 weeks. Neuroimaging studies performed on the newborn infant showed intense cerebral atrophy in both hemispheres. Other complementary investigations gave negative results. A relation is proposed between the cordocentesis and the development of vascular disruption, which could have caused the fetal brain disruption sequence in this case. (+info)
Intra-amniotic endotoxin: chorioamnionitis precedes lung maturation in preterm lambs.
The inflammatory and lung maturational effects of intra-amniotic exposure to endotoxin were assessed in fetal lambs. Five hours to 25 days after intra-amniotic injection of endotoxin, preterm lambs were delivered at 119-125 days gestation. Intra-amniotic endotoxin caused an inflammatory cell infiltration in amnion/chorion at 5 h, which persisted for 25 days. At 5-15 h after endotoxin, amnion/chorion cytokine mRNAs increased [12- to 26-fold for interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 mRNA and 3-fold for tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA]. At 1-2 days after endotoxin, lung cytokine mRNAs increased 6- to 49-fold. Endotoxin caused modest changes in peripheral white blood cell counts and no significant cytokine mRNA responses in fetal liver, placenta, or jejunum. Lung maturation, as characterized by increased lung volumes and alveolar saturated phosphatidylcholine, occurred at 7 days and persisted for 25 days after endotoxin. We conclude that exposure to a single dose of intra-amniotic endotoxin causes inflammation and increases in cytokine mRNA in amnion/chorion and the fetal lung before lung maturation, consistent with the hypothesis that proinflammatory cytokines signal lung maturation. (+info)