(1/139) Nitric oxide induces the synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor by rat vascular smooth muscle cells.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to induce the release of nitric oxide (NO) from endothelial cells. However, the effect of NO on VEGF synthesis is not clear. Accordingly, the effect of endogenous and exogenous NO on VEGF synthesis by rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Two in vitro models were used: (1) VSMCs stimulated to produce NO by treatment with interleukin (IL)-1beta (10 ng/mL) and (2) VSMCs lipotransfected with pKecNOS plasmid, containing the endothelial constitutive NO synthase (ecNOS) cDNA. The synthesis of NO was inhibited by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 2 to 5 mmol/L) or diaminohydroxypyrimidine (DAHP, 2.5 to 5 mmol/L), inhibitors of NOS and GTP cyclohydrolase I, respectively. Some cells treated with L-NAME or DAHP were supplemented with L-arginine (10 mmol/L) or tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4); 100 micromol/L), respectively. In addition, we studied the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 10 and 100 micromol/L) and chemically related compounds, potassium ferrocyanide and ferricyanide, on VEGF generation. IL-1beta induced iNOS expression and NO generation and significantly upregulated VEGF mRNA expression and protein synthesis. L-NAME and DAHP totally inhibited NO generation and decreased the IL-1beta-upregulated VEGF synthesis by 30% to 40%. Supplementation with L-arginine or BH(4) increased NO generation by L-NAME- or DAHP-treated cells, and VEGF synthesis was augmented by addition of BH(4). The cells generating NO after pKecNOS transfection released significantly higher amounts of VEGF than cells transfected with control plasmids. Inhibition of NO generation by L-NAME decreased VEGF synthesis. In contrast to the effect of endogenous NO, we observed the inhibition of VEGF synthesis in the presence of high (10 or 100 micromol/L) concentrations of SNP. This effect was mimicked by chemically related ferricyanide and ferrocyanide compounds, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of sodium nitroprusside may be mediated by an NO-independent mechanism. The results indicate that endogenous NO enhances VEGF synthesis. The positive interaction between endogenous NO and VEGF may have implications for endothelial regeneration after balloon angioplasty and for angiogenesis. (+info)
(2/139) Magnetic resonance imaging detection of rat renal transplant rejection by monitoring macrophage infiltration.
BACKGROUND: A rat renal transplantation model was studied by noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an infusion of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles to test whether the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages, could be detected in vivo while the kidney transplant was being rejected. METHODS: Major histocompatibility disparate DA to BN male rat renal transplantation recipients were infused with USPIO particles, with magnetic resonance (MR) images acquired before, immediately after, and one day following infusion. RESULTS: When the USPIO infusion was on the fourth day post-transplantation, some rejecting allografts showed a decrease of MR signal intensity one day later. Isografts and allografts with triple immunosuppressant treatment had no MR signal reduction. Immunohistologic staining for ED1+ macrophages and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in allogeneic transplanted kidneys indicated the accumulation of these immune cells as acute rejection occurred. Morphological studies by electron microscopy confirmed the existence of iron inside the lysosomes of macrophages of rejecting kidneys, while Prussian blue staining detected the presence of iron plaques in macrophages. Isografts and allografts with a triple immunosuppressant treatment exhibited smaller MR signal reductions with minimal histologic changes. CONCLUSIONS: The concurrence of MR signal reduction following USPIO infusion with pathological manifestation in a rat renal allograft model suggests the possibility that renal transplantation status may be assessed by MRI using USPIO particles as markers for the accumulation of immune cells, such as macrophages. (+info)
(3/139) Copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase can act as a superoxide reductase and a superoxide oxidase.
The copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase can catalyze the oxidation of ferrocyanide by O(2) as well as the reduction of ferricyanide by O(2). Thus, it can act as a superoxide dismutase (SOD), a superoxide reductase (SOR), and a superoxide oxidase (SOO). The human manganese-containing SOD does not exert SOR or SOO activities with ferrocyanide or ferricyanide as the redox partners. It is possible that some biological reductants can take the place of ferrocyanide and can also interact with human manganese-containing superoxide dismutase, thus making the SOR activity a reality for both SODs. The consequences of this possibility vis a vis H(2)O(2) production, the overproduction of SODs, and the role of copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase mutations in causing familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are discussed, as well as the likelihood that the biologically effective SOD mimics, as described to date, actually function as SORs. (+info)
(4/139) Management of thallium poisoning.
A case of acute thallium poisoning in a 67-year-old Chinese woman is described. She presented with acute pain in the chest, abdomen, and lower limbs. The diagnosis was not made, however, until alopecia developed. Detoxification treatment, which included Prussian blue (potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate) was then given, but further neurological damage occurred. The patient's motor function recovered after 1 year, but residual sensory neuropathy remained. This case illustrates that tissue-bound thallium may cause prolonged neurological damage if detoxification therapy is not commenced within 72 hours of the onset of acute poisoning. Acute abdominal pain and painful neuropathy in the lower extremities are important early diagnostic clues for timely therapy. However, by the time alopecia develops-typically around 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms-detoxification therapy may not be able to prevent the development of prolonged neurological damage. (+info)
(5/139) Passive absorption of hydrophilic carbohydrate probes by the house sparrow Passer domesticus.
To evaluate the permeability of the intestine of the house sparrow Passer domesticus to hydrophilic compounds, we applied a pharmacokinetic technique to measure in vivo absorption of two carbohydrate probes, l-arabinose and d-mannitol. Probes were fed or injected, and blood and excreta were subsequently collected and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Following injection, plasma probe concentration decreased in a log-linear fashion, implying single-compartment, first-order kinetics. Following oral administration, plasma probe concentrations increased, reached a maximum at 10 min and then decreased in log-linear fashion. Mannitol and arabinose absorption were calculated from the areas under the post-absorption plasma curve and the respective distribution spaces and elimination constants. The amounts absorbed increased linearly with the concentration administered (range 1-1000 mmol x l(-1)), implying a passive process. The mouth-to-cloaca retention time of digesta, measured using the non-absorbable compound potassium ferrocyanide, was independent of probe concentration. On average, 69% of the oral dose of probe was absorbed and this was independent of the concentration of probe administered. This paper supports an earlier report of substantial passive glucose absorption in house sparrows and offers a method to study the extent of hydrophilic solute absorption, which has importance for future research in areas as diverse as biomedical, ecological and evolutionary physiology. (+info)
(6/139) Tracer studies in the rat demonstrate misdirected filtration and peritubular filtrate spreading in nephrons with segmental glomerulosclerosis.
In two genetic models of "classic" focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), the Milan normotensive and the Fawn-hooded hypertensive rats, tracer studies were performed to test the hypothesis that misdirected glomerular filtration and peritubular filtrate spreading are relevant mechanisms that contribute to nephron degeneration in this disease. Two exogenous tracers, lissamine green and horse spleen ferritin, were administered by intravenous injection and subsequently traced histologically in serial kidney sections. In contrast to control rats, both tracers in kidneys of Milan normotensive and Fawn-hooded hypertensive rats with established FSGS were found to accumulate extracellularly at the following sites: (1) within tuft adhesions to Bowman's capsule and associated paraglomerular spaces, (2) at the glomerulotubular junction contained within extensions of the paraglomerular spaces onto the tubule, and (3) within subepithelial peritubular spaces eventually encircling the entire proximal convolution of an affected nephron. This distribution strongly suggests the existence of misdirected filtration into tuft adhesions to Bowman's capsule and subsequent spreading of the filtrate around the entire circumference of a glomerulus and, alongside the glomerulotubular junction, onto the outer aspect of the corresponding tubule. This leads to an interstitial response that consists of the formation of a barrier of sheet-like fibroblast processes around the affected nephron, which confines the filtrate spreading and, subsequently, the destructive process to the affected nephron. No evidence was found that either misdirected filtration and peritubular filtrate spreading themselves or the associated tubulo-interstitial process led to the transfer of the injury from an affected nephron to an unaffected nephron. It is concluded that in the context of FSGS development, misdirected filtration and peritubular filtrate spreading are important damaging mechanisms that underlie the extension of glomerular injury to the corresponding tubulointerstitium, thus leading finally to degeneration of both the glomerulus and the tubule of a severely injured nephron. (+info)
(7/139) Enhanced visualization of weak colloidal iron signals with Bodian's protein silver for demonstration of perineuronal nets of proteoglycans in the central nervous system.
The present study aimed for a clear visualization of faintly deposited colloidal iron in tissue sections for light microscopy. Paraffin blocks containing paraformaldehyde-fixed brain tissue from healthy adult mice were cut into sections 10-15 microm thick. After deparaffinization, the sections were stained with fine cationic iron colloid at a pH value of 1.0-1.5, and treated with a mixture of potassium ferrocyanide and hydrochloride for Prussian blue reaction. Some sections were further treated with Bodian's protein silver after the Prussian blue reaction. This sensitized development of Prussian blue reaction with Bodian's protein silver more clearly visualized the faintly deposited cationic colloidal irons than the demonstration by Prussian blue reaction alone, and allowed an enhanced visualization of the perineuronal nets of sulfated proteoglycans in the brain. Thus, such fine perineuronal sulfated proteoglycans as those in the CA3 field of the hippocampus, which are weakly stained with cationic iron colloid and usually overlooked by a demonstration with only a Prussian blue reaction, could be clearly visualized with striking contrast by the sensitized development with Bodian's protein silver after the Prussian blue reaction. Preliminary hyaluronidase digestion erased Bodian's protein silver development of perineuronal sulfated proteoglycans. Though some axonal fibers were also additionally stained with Bodian's protein silver itself, this sensitized development is useful to enhance such weak colloidal iron signals as are hardly detectable by only Prussian blue reaction. (+info)
(8/139) Intracisternal increase of superoxide anion production in a canine subarachnoid hemorrhage model.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to be primary in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, as direct evidence of ROS has not yet been demonstrated in cerebral vasospasm, we sought to substantiate superoxide anion (.O(2)(-)) generation in the subarachnoid space after SAH using a modification of Karnovsky's manganese/diaminobenzidine (Mn(2+)/DAB) technique. METHODS: SAH or sham operation was induced according to a 2-hemorrhage model in a total of 24 beagle dogs. On day 2 or 7 after SAH or sham operation, dogs were intrathecally infused with buffer containing Mn(2+) and DAB, and the brain stem was prepared for light and electron microscopy. Possible colocalization of ferrous (Fe(2+)) or ferric (Fe(3+)) iron ions with.O(2)(-) was also examined with the use of Turnbull blue or Berlin blue staining, respectively. RESULTS: Light microscopy revealed amorphous, amber deposits within the subarachnoid hematoma, the periarterial space, and the tunica adventitia of the basilar artery on days 2 and 7 after SAH.O(2)(-) deposits were eliminated by addition of superoxide dismutase or exclusion of either Mn(2+) or DAB from the perfusate, confirming the specificity of the reaction. These deposits were colocalized with blue reaction deposits indicating Fe(2+) and Fe(3+). Within the subarachnoid space,.O(2)(-) indicating electron-dense fine granules were preferentially located around degenerated erythrocytes and, secondarily, infiltrating macrophages and neutrophils. CONCLUSIONS: We show direct evidence for enhanced production of.O(2)(-) and Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) iron ions in the subarachnoid space after SAH, lending further support to the pathogenic role of ROS in cerebral vasospasm after SAH. (+info)