(1/137) Disruption of tonB in Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis prevents utilization of ferric siderophores, haemin and haemoglobin as iron sources.
The Bordetella bronchiseptica tonB gene was cloned by detection of a chromosomal restriction fragment hybridizing with each of two degenerate oligonucleotides that corresponded to Pro-Glu and Pro-Lys repeats characteristic of known TonB proteins. The tonB(Bb) gene was situated upstream of exbB and exbD homologues and downstream of a putative Fur-regulated promoter. Hybridization results indicated that the tonB operon and flanking regions were highly conserved between B. bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. Disruption of tonB in B. bronchiseptica resulted in inability to grow in iron-limiting media, and inability to utilize alcaligin, enterobactin, ferrichrome, desferroxamine B, haemin and haemoglobin. Although it was not possible to inactivate tonB in a clinical B. pertussis isolate, tonB was disrupted in a laboratory B. pertussis strain previously selected for the ability to grow on Luria-Bertani medium. This B. pertussis tonB mutant shared a similar iron complex utilization deficient phenotype with the B. bronchiseptica tonB mutant. The B. bronchiseptica tonB operon present on a plasmid did not complement an Escherichia coli tonB mutant, but inefficient reconstitution of enterobactin utilization was observed in one fepA mutant harbouring plasmid copies of the B. pertussis fepA homologue and tonB(Bb) operon. (+info)
(2/137) Bordetella pertussis TonB, a Bvg-independent virulence determinant.
In gram-negative bacteria, high-affinity iron uptake requires the TonB/ExbB/ExbD envelope complex to release iron chelates from their specific outer membrane receptors into the periplasm. Based on sequence similarities, the Bordetella pertussis tonB exbB exbD locus was identified on a cloned DNA fragment. The tight organization of the three genes suggests that they are cotranscribed. A putative Fur-binding sequence located upstream from tonB was detected in a Fur titration assay, indicating that the tonB exbB exbD operon may be Fur-repressed in high-iron growth conditions. Putative structural genes of the beta-subunit of the histone-like protein HU and of a new two-component regulatory system were identified upstream from tonB and downstream from exbD, respectively. A B. pertussis DeltatonB exbB::Km(r) mutant was constructed by allelic exchange and characterized. The mutant was impaired for growth in low-iron medium in vitro and could not use ferrichrome, desferal, or hemin as iron sources. Levels of production of the major bacterial toxins and adhesins were similar in the TonB(+)/TonB(-) pair. The DeltatonB exbB mutant was still responsive to chemical modulators of virulence; thus, the BvgA/BvgS two-component system is not TonB dependent. Nevertheless, in vivo in the mouse respiratory infection model, the colonization ability of the mutant was reduced compared to the parental strain. (+info)
(3/137) Identification of an operon required for ferrichrome iron utilization in Vibrio cholerae.
Mutagenesis of Vibrio cholerae with TnphoA, followed by screening for fusions that were activated under low-iron conditions, led to the identification of seven independent fusion strains, each of which was deficient in the ability to utilize ferrichrome as a sole iron source for growth in a plate bioassay and had an insertion in genes encoding products homologous to Escherichia coli FhuA or FhuD. Expression of the gene fusions was independent of IrgB but regulated by Fur. We report here a map of the operon and the predicted amino acid sequence of FhuA, based on the nucleotide sequence. Unlike those of the E. coli fhu operon, the V. cholerae ferrichrome utilization genes are located adjacent and opposite in orientation to a gene encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter homolog, but this gene, if disrupted, does not affect the utilization of ferrichrome in vitro. (+info)
(4/137) Molecular characterization of the ferric-uptake regulator, fur, from Staphylococcus aureus.
Iron is an essential nutrient for the survival and pathogenesis of bacteria, but relatively little is known regarding its transport and regulation in staphylococci. Based on the known sequences of ferric-uptake regulatory (fur) genes from several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, a fragment containing the fur homologue was cloned from a genomic library of Staphylococcus aureus RN450. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this fragment revealed the presence of a 447 bp ORF that encodes a putative 149 aa polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa. A putative ferrichrome-uptake (fhu) operon, containing the conserved Fur-binding sequences (Fur box) in the promoter region, was also cloned from the same S. aureus library. To characterize the impact of Fur on the fhu operon, fur was cloned, overexpressed as a His-tagged protein and purified by Ni2+-affinity column chromatography. The recombinant protein was digested with enterokinase to remove the His tag. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays indicated that Fur binds to the promoter region of the fhu operon in the presence of divalent cations. Fur also interacted with the promoter region of the recently reported sir operon that has been proposed to constitute a siderophore-transport system in S. aureus. The DNase I-protection assay revealed that Fur specifically binds to the Fur box located in the promoter region of the fhu operon. The primer-extension reaction indicated that the transcription-start site of the fhu operon was located inside the Fur box. S. aureus fur partially complemented a fur- mutation in Bacillus subtilis. The data suggest that Fur regulates iron-transport processes in S. aureus. (+info)
(5/137) Siderophore-iron uptake in saccharomyces cerevisiae. Identification of ferrichrome and fusarinine transporters.
A family of four putative transporters (Arn1p-4p) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is expressed under conditions of iron deprivation and is regulated by Aft1p, the major iron-dependent transcription factor in yeast. One of these, Arn3p/Sit1p, facilitates the uptake of ferrioxamine B, a siderophore of the hydroxamate class. Here we report that ARN family members facilitated the uptake of iron from the trihydroxamate siderophores ferrichrome, ferrichrome A, and triacetylfusarinine C. Uptake of siderophore-bound iron was dependent on either the high-affinity ferrous iron transport system or the ARN family of transporters. The specificity of each siderophore for individual transporters was determined. Uptake of ferrichrome and ferrichrome A was facilitated by both Arn1p and Arn3p. Uptake of triacetylfusarinine C was facilitated by Arn2p, although small amounts of uptake also occurred through Arn1p and Arn3p. In contrast to the trihydroxamates, uptake of iron from the dihydroxamate rhodotorulic acid occurred only via the high-affinity ferrous iron system. Epitope-tagged Arn1p was expressed in intracellular vesicles in a pattern that was indistinguishable from that of Arn3p, whereas Ftr1p, a component of the high-affinity ferrous system, was expressed on the plasma membrane. These data indicate that S. cerevisiae maintains two systems of siderophore uptake, only one of which is located on the plasma membrane. (+info)
(6/137) Crystal structure of the antibiotic albomycin in complex with the outer membrane transporter FhuA.
One alternative method for drug delivery involves the use of siderophore-antibiotic conjugates. These compounds represent a specific means by which potent antimicrobial agents, covalently linked to iron-chelating siderophores, can be actively transported across the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. These "Trojan Horse" antibiotics may prove useful as an efficient means to combat multi-drug-resistant bacterial infections. Here we present the crystallographic structures of the natural siderophore-antibiotic conjugate albomycin and the siderophore phenylferricrocin, in complex with the active outer membrane transporter FhuA from Escherichia coli. To our knowledge, this represents the first structure of an antibiotic bound to its cognate transporter. Albomycins are broad-host range antibiotics that consist of a hydroxamate-type iron-chelating siderophore, and an antibiotically active, thioribosyl pyrimidine moiety. As observed with other hydroxamate-type siderophores, the three-dimensional structure of albomycin reveals an identical coordination geometry surrounding the ferric iron atom. Unexpectedly, this antibiotic assumes two conformational isomers in the binding site of FhuA, an extended and a compact form. The structural information derived from this study provides novel insights into the diverse array of antibiotic moieties that can be linked to the distal portion of iron-chelating siderophores and offers a structural platform for the rational design of hydroxamate-type siderophore-antibiotic conjugates. (+info)
(7/137) Kinetic studies on the specificity of chelate-iron uptake in Aspergillus.
Three strains of the fungus Aspergillus, Aspergillus quadricinctus (E. Yuill), A. fumigatus (Fresenius), and A. melleus (Yukawa), each producing different iron-chelating compounds during iron-deficient cultivation, were used for 55Fe3+ uptake measurements. Iron from chelates of the ferrichrome-type family was taken up by young mycelia of all strains tested, irrespective of the ferrichrome-type compound these strains predominantly produce in low-iron cultures. Ferrichrysin-producing strains, however, seem to favor ferrichrysin iron uptake, whereas ferrichrome, ferricrocin, and even ferrirubin showed similar iron transport properties in all of these strains. Compared to iron uptake from ferrichrome-type compounds (Km approximately 4 uM) iron uptake from fusigen revealed completely different kinetic values (Km approximately 50 to 80 muM). Iron from exogenous chelates, e.g., from coprogen produced by Neurospora crassa for ferrioxamine B produced by Streptomyces pilosus, can obviously not be taken up by Aspergillus, confirming the pronounced specificity of chelate-iron transport in fungi. (+info)
(8/137) The role of the FRE family of plasma membrane reductases in the uptake of siderophore-iron in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae takes up siderophore-bound iron through two distinct systems, one that requires siderophore transporters of the ARN family and one that requires the high affinity ferrous iron transporter on the plasma membrane. Uptake through the plasma membrane ferrous iron transporter requires that the iron first must dissociate from the siderophore and undergo reduction to the ferrous form. FRE1 and FRE2 encode cell surface metalloreductases that are required for reduction and uptake of free ferric iron. The yeast genome contains five additional FRE1 and FRE2 homologues, four of which are regulated by iron and the major iron-dependent transcription factor, Aft1p, but whose function remains unknown. Fre3p was required for the reduction and uptake of ferrioxamine B-iron and for growth on ferrioxamine B, ferrichrome, triacetylfusarinine C, and rhodotorulic acid in the absence of Fre1p and Fre2p. By indirect immunofluorescence, Fre3p was expressed on the plasma membrane in a pattern similar to that of Fet3p, a component of the high affinity ferrous transporter. Enterobactin, a catecholate siderophore, was not a substrate for Fre3p, and reductive uptake required either Fre1p or Fre2p. Fre4p could facilitate utilization of rhodotorulic acid-iron when the siderophore was present in higher concentrations. We propose that Fre3p and Fre4p are siderophore-iron reductases and that the apparent redundancy of the FRE genes confers the capacity to utilize iron from a variety of siderophore sources. (+info)