(1/233) Differential cell tropism of feline immunodeficiency virus molecular clones in vivo.

Independent studies have demonstrated different cell tropisms for molecular clones of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In this report, we examined three clones, FIV-pF34, FIV-14, and FIV-pPPR, for replication in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells, feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and feline macrophage cultures. Importantly, cell tropism for these three clones was also examined in vivo. FIV-pF34 replication was efficient in CrFK cells but severely restricted in PBMC, whereas replication of FIV-pPPR was vigorous in PBMC but severely restricted in CrFK cells. FIV-14 replication was productive in both CrFK cells and PBMC. Interestingly, all three molecular clones replicated with similar efficiencies in primary feline monocyte-derived macrophages. In vivo, FIV-pF34 proved least efficient for establishing persistent infection, and proviral DNA when detectable, was localized predominately to nonlymphoid cell populations (macrophages). FIV-pPPR proved most efficient for induction of a persistent viremia in vivo, and proviral DNA was localized predominately in CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocyte subsets. FIV-14 inoculation of cats resulted in an infection characterized by seroconversion and localization of proviral DNA in CD4(+) lymphocytes only. Results of this study on diverse FIV molecular clones revealed that in vitro replication efficiency of an FIV isolate in PBMC directly correlated with replication efficiency in vivo, whereas proficiency for replication in macrophages in vitro was not predictive for replication potential in vivo. Also, infection of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocyte subsets was associated with higher virus load in vivo. Results of the studies on these three FIV clones, which exhibited differential cell tropism, indicated a correlation between in vitro and in vivo cell tropism and virus replication.  (+info)

(2/233) Feline immunodeficiency virus subtype C is prevalent in northern part of Taiwan.

The seroepidemiological survey of cats conducted in northern part of Taiwan in 1998 revealed that the positive rate of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infection was 21.9% (7/32) and the rate was much higher than those of previous reports. We succeeded in isolation of three strains of FIV from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the blood samples. Nucleotide sequences of the env variable V3 to V5 region of the strains revealed that the isolates from distinct areas belong to subtype C. These data together with our previous report (Inada et al. 1997. Arch. Virol., 142: 1459-1467) indicate that FIV subtype C is prevalent in northern part of Taiwan.  (+info)

(3/233) Suppression of feline immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro by a soluble factor secreted by CD8+ T lymphocytes.

Mitogen-activated lymphoblasts isolated from the blood and lymph nodes, but not the spleen, of domestic cats acutely infected with the Petaluma or Glasgow8 isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), suppressed the replication of FIV in the MYA-1 T-cell line in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was not limited to the homologous isolate of FIV. The suppressor activity declined with progression to chronic infection, with lower levels of activity detectable only in the lymph nodes. Immunization of domestic cats with whole inactivated FIV vaccine elicited profound suppressor activity in both the blood and lymph nodes. The suppressor activity was associated with the CD8+ T-cell subpopulation, the effect did not appear to be major histocompatibility complex-restricted, and was mediated by a soluble factor(s). This activity may be associated with the control of virus replication during both the asymptomatic stages of FIV infection, and in the protective immunity observed in cats immunized with whole inactivated virus vaccines.  (+info)

(4/233) Progressive expansion of an L-selectin-negative CD8 cell with anti-feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) suppressor function in the circulation of FIV-infected cats.

The acute stage of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is characterized by the appearance of a major CD8 subpopulation with reduced expression of the CD8 beta chain (CD8alpha+betalo). CD8 antiviral activity was subsequently shown to be mediated by the CD8alpha+betalo phenotype, which is the dominant CD8 phenotype in long-term infected cats. Two- and three-color flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the CD8alpha+betalo subset is L-selectin negative (CD62L-) and has increased expression of CD44, CD49d, and CD18, consistent with an activation phenotype. The CD8alpha+betaloCD62L- cells but not the CD8alpha+betahiCD62L+ cells demonstrated strong antiviral activity in the FIV acute-infection assay. The progressive expansion of the CD8alpha+betaloCD62L- effector subset cells in FIV-infected cats parallels that seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, suggesting that failure in homeostatic mechanisms regulating lymphocyte activation or trafficking (or both) may be a consequence of both HIV and FIV infections.  (+info)

(5/233) T cells overexpressing interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 are found in both the thymus and secondary lymphoid tissues of feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats.

Similar to human immunodeficiency virus type 1, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replicates in the thymus of infected animals, causing marked alteration in thymic lymphocyte subpopulations. The immune phenotype and cytokine patterns in the thymus and secondary lymphoid tissues of FIV-infected cats were investigated. FIV infection caused an acute-stage transient reduction in CD4CD8 double-positive thymocytes, a marked increase in CD8 single-positive thymocytes, and formation of thymic B cell lymphoid follicles. Interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-10 mRNA were up-regulated in both the thymus and lymph nodes of FIV-infected cats. Analysis of purified CD4 and CD8 cells revealed that CD4 cells produced most of the IL-10, whereas IFN-gamma was produced by both subsets. Quantitative-competitive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that thymocytes, especially CD4CD8 thymocytes, had much greater levels of gag mRNA than did lymph node T cells. Thus, overexpression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 is a feature of the thymus and secondary lymphoid tissues of FIV-infected cats.  (+info)

(6/233) In vivo infection of ramified microglia from adult cat central nervous system by feline immunodeficiency virus.

Infection of microglial cells by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is supposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related central nervous system (CNS) complications. So far, however, experimental data about interactions between HIV and ramified microglia from the adult CNS were only occasionally reported, making it difficult to understand the exact nature of pathogenic events contributing to HIV-encephalopathy. Therefore, we used the animal model of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection of domestic cats to establish an experimental system which is suitable for studying the relationships between an immunodeficiency virus and the mature ramified microglia of the central nervous system. By means of density gradient centrifugation approximately 95% pure microglial cells could be isolated from adult feline brain that were characterized by their CD45(low) phenotype. Resident microglia extracted from the CNS of experimentally infected cats harbored FIV-specific DNA and cocultivation with mitogen-activated, but uninfected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resulted in recovery of high-titered infectious virus. Double labeling of brain cell monocultures explanted from persistently infected animals for both microglia and FIV markers disclosed less than 1% of viral antigen expressing microglial cells. This suggests that during the subclinical phase of the infection only a small number of brain-resident macrophages are productively infected. However, interaction of FIV-infected microglia and inflammatory lymphocytes may promote viral replication, thus supporting viral spread in brain tissue.  (+info)

(7/233) 8-Difluoromethoxy-4-quinolone derivatives as anti-feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) agents: important structural features for inhibitory activity of FIV replication.

The inhibitory activities of various 8-difluoromethoxy-4-quinolone derivatives against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication in the chronically infected cell line P-CrFK were investigated. Certain derivatives were found to inhibit FIV production from P-CrFK cells in a dose-dependent manner without exhibiting cytotoxic effects at inhibitory concentrations. Based on this study, the structures important for anti-FIV activity are suggested to be (i) a carboxyl group at position C-3, and (ii) an aromatic modification at position 4 of the C-7 piperazinyl moiety.  (+info)

(8/233) Effects of multiple acute morphine exposures on feline immunodeficiency virus disease progression.

Drug abuse is a common method of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission, but the role of opiates on lentivirus disease progression is not well understood. The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)/cat system was used to model the weekend opiate abuser: the nondependent, nonaddicted, and nontolerant person. Sixteen cats were placed into 4 groups: FIV only, morphine only, morphine/FIV, and controls. Multiple acute morphine exposure did not increase the severity of early lentivirus infection. On the contrary, it delayed or moderated the FIV-induced disease progression. Although the animals were exposed to only 1 injection of morphine per day for 2 consecutive days per week, the morphine-treated FIV-infected animals had a delayed onset of the FIV-induced lymphadenopathy, did not develop or had a significant delay in the FIV-induced effects on brain stem auditory evoked potentials, and demonstrated a trend toward decreased virus load.  (+info)