(1/51) Diagnostic interest of acid-labile subunit measurement in relationship to other components of the IGF system in pediatric patients with growth or eating disorders.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the possible utility of measuring acid-labile subunit (ALS) in some types of pathologies in which the IGF system is altered and to compare it with the clinical implications of measurements of other components of this axis. DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied serum ALS concentrations in 20 children with normal variants of short stature (NVSS) at diagnosis and 24 with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), 18 obese patients and 18 girls with anorexia nervosa at diagnosis and during a follow-up period. RESULTS: In patients with GHD and anorexia nervosa, mean ALS concentrations were significantly reduced, but there was a high percentage of overlap with control values. At diagnosis, ALS concentrations were normal in obese patients and children with NVSS. During follow-up, these values normalized in children with GHD who were treated with GH, tended to normalize in those with anorexia nervosa who showed weight gain, and did not change in obese children upon weight loss. However, ALS measurement was less accurate than that of IGF-I or IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in diagnosis of GHD. The correlations found between ALS and some IGF system components at diagnosis either decreased or were non-significant during follow-up of these clinical conditions. CONCLUSION: ALS adds little information to that obtained with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 determinations. (+info)
(2/51) Feeding difficulties in long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.
Feeding difficulties are common in long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in early childhood and are not associated with developmental disability, metabolic abnormalities, or the overnight feeding regimen. They are an inherent part of the phenotype and it is important to recognise them because of the distress and disruption they cause. (+info)
(3/51) Analysis of response covariationamong multiple topographies of food refusal.
This study examined the effects of sequentially introducing treatment across multiple topographies of food refusal. Treatment with nonremoval of the spoon produced an increase in food acceptance and a decrease in disruption, but expulsion of food increased. When expulsion was treated, packing of food increased. Finally, when packing was treated, all refusal behaviors remained low, and acceptance continued to occur at high and stable levels. (+info)
(4/51) An evaluation of food type and texture in the treatment of a feeding problem.
An evaluation of food type and texture indicated that both variables affected the expulsions of a 3-year-old with feeding problems. The results of the evaluation were used to prescribe a treatment (reducing the texture of one food type) that reduced expulsion. (+info)
(5/51) Body composition in early onset eating disorders.
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) or equivalent weight for height indices are the most widely used measures of body composition in early onset and adolescent eating disorders. Although of value as screening instruments the limitation in disease states is their inability to discriminate fat and fat-free components of body weight. OBJECTIVE: To compare height-adjusted fat and fat-free components of body composition in children and young adolescents with different types of eating disorders with those of age matched reference children. DESIGN: Weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were measured in 172 children (aged 7-16 y) with eating disorders receiving specialist treatment. Fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were calculated using Slaughter's and Deurenberg's equations and normalisation for height. Using data from 157 normal children, representative of the UK 1990 growth reference data, reference curves for FMI and FFMI+/-2 s.d. were derived. Results for patient groups were superimposed on these reference curves. RESULTS: FMI and FFMI were both reduced in eating disorders associated with malnutrition, including anorexia nervosa (AN). AN subjects did not differ from other subjects with comparable degrees of malnutrition. Children with eating disorders of normal weight, such as bulimia nervosa and selective eating, did not differ significantly from reference children in their relative FM and FFM. CONCLUSIONS: FM and FFM merit independent consideration in disorders of malnutrition in children, rather than expressing data as percentage body fat or percentage BMI. The implications of loss of FFM on growth and development merit further investigation. (+info)
(6/51) An evaluation of simultaneous and sequential presentation of preferred and nonpreferred food to treat food selectivity.
In the current investigation, we compared two methods of food presentation (simultaneous vs. sequential) to increase consumption of nonpreferred food for 3 children with food selectivity. In the simultaneous condition, preferred foods were presented at the same time as nonpreferred food (e.g., a piece of broccoli was presented on a chip). In the sequential condition, acceptance of the nonpreferred food resulted in presentation of the preferred food. Increases in consumption occurred immediately during the simultaneous condition for 2 of the 3 participants. For 1 participant, increases in consumption occurred in the simultaneous condition relative to the sequential condition, but only after physical guidance and re-presentation were added to treatment. Finally, consumption increased for 1 participant in the sequential condition, but only after several sessions. These results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms that may alter preferences for food (i.e., establishing operations, flavor-flavor conditioning). (+info)
(7/51) Acquisition of cup drinking using previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement.
We used previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement in the acquisition of cup drinking. Cup drinking increased with positive and negative reinforcement, both alone and in combination (without escape extinction), indicating that treatment of food refusal can establish some foods as appetitive stimuli whereas others remain aversive. (+info)
(8/51) Use of the high-probability instructional sequence and escape extinction in a child with food refusal.
We used the high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence with and without escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal. Acceptance increased and refusal decreased only with the introduction of escape extinction. These results raise important questions about the high-p sequence in the treatment of food refusal. (+info)