High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice.
Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability. (+info)
Delay of preterm delivery in sheep by omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturates.
A positive correlation has been shown between dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in late pregnancy and gestation length in pregnant women and experimental animals. To determine whether omega-3 fatty acids have an effect on preterm labor in sheep, a fish oil concentrate emulsion was continuously infused to six pregnant ewes from 124 days gestational age. At 125 days, betamethasone was administered to the fetus to produce preterm labor. Both the onset of labor and the time of delivery were delayed by the fish oil emulsion. Two of the omega-3-infused ewes reverted from contractions to nonlabor, an effect never previously observed for experimental glucocorticoid-induced preterm labor in sheep. Maternal plasma estradiol and maternal and fetal prostaglandin E2 rose in control ewes but not in those infused with omega-3 fatty acid. The ability of omega-3 fatty acids to delay premature delivery in sheep indicates their possible use as tocolytics in humans. Premature labor is the major cause of neonatal death and long-term disability, and these studies present information that may lead to a novel therapeutic regimen for the prevention of preterm delivery in human pregnancy. (+info)
Low C18 to C20 fatty acid elongase activity and limited conversion of stearidonic acid, 18:4(n-3), to eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5(n-3), in a cell line from the turbot, Scophthalmus maximus.
The TF cell line, derived from a top predatory, carnivorous marine teleost, the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), is known to have a limited conversion of C18 to C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). To illuminate the underlying processes, we studied the conversions of stearidonic acid, 18:4(n-3), and its elongation product, 20:4(n-3), in TF cells and also in a cell line, AS, derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), by adding unlabelled (25 microM), U-14C (1 microM) or deuterated (d5; 25 microM) fatty acids. Stearidonic acid, 18:4(n-3), was metabolised to 20:5(n-3) in both cells lines, but more so in AS than in TF cells. Delta5 desaturation was more active in TF cells than in AS cells, whereas C18 to C20 elongation was much reduced in TF as compared to AS cells. Only small amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)) were produced by both cell lines, although there was significant production of 22:5(n-3) in both cultures, especially when 20:4(n-3) was supplemented. We conclude that limited elongation of C18 to C20 fatty acids rather than limited fatty acyl Delta5 desaturation accounts for the limited rate of conversion of 18:3(n-3) to 20:5(n-3) in the turbot cell line, as compared to the Atlantic salmon cell line. The results can account for the known differences in conversions of C18 to C20 PUFA by the turbot and the Atlantic salmon in vivo. (+info)
Omega-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction: the EURAMIC study.
Omega-3 fatty acids have potential antiatherogenic, antithrombotic, and antiarrhythmic properties, but their role in coronary heart disease remains controversial. To evaluate the association of omega-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue with the risk of myocardial infarction in men, a case-control study was conducted in eight European countries and Israel. Cases (n=639) included patients with a first myocardial infarction admitted to coronary care units within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. Controls (n=700) were selected to represent the populations originating the cases. Adipose tissue levels of fatty acids were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The mean (+/-SD) proportion of alpha-linolenic acid was 0.77% (+/-0.19) of fatty acids in cases and 0.80% (+/-0.19) of fatty acids in controls (P=0.01). The relative risk for the highest quintile of alpha-linolenic acid compared with the lowest was 0.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22 to 0.81, P-trend=0.02). After adjusting for classical risk factors, the relative risk for the highest quintile was 0.68 (95% CI 0.31 to 1.49, P-trend=0.38). The mean proportion of docosahexaenoic acid was 0.24% (+/-0.13) of fatty acids in cases and 0.25% (+/-0.13) of fatty acids in controls (P=0. 14), with no evidence of association with risk of myocardial infarction. In this large case-control study we could not detect a protective effect of docosahexaenoic acid on the risk of myocardial infarction. The protective effect of alpha-linolenic acid was attenuated after adjusting for classical risk factors (mainly smoking), but it deserves further research. (+info)
Thyroid hormone status and membrane n-3 fatty acid content influence mitochondrial proton leak.
Proton leak, as determined by the relationship between respiration rate and membrane potential, was lower in mitochondria from hypothyroid rats compared to euthyroid controls. Moreover, proton leak rates diminished even more when hypothyroid rats were fed a diet containing 5% of the lipid content as n-3 fatty acids. Similarly, proton leak was lower in euthyroid rats fed the 5% n-3 diet compared to one containing only 1% n-3 fatty acids. Lower proton leaks rates were associated with increased inner mitochondrial membrane levels of n-3 fatty acids and a decrease in the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. This trend was evident in the phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin phospholipid fractions. These results suggest that a significant portion of the effect of thyroid hormone status on proton leak is due to alterations in membrane fatty acid composition, primarily changes in n-3 content. Both the hypothyroid state and dietary effects appear to be mediated in part by inhibition of the Delta6- and Delta5-desaturase pathways. (+info)
A comparison of the metabolism of [3-14C]-labeled 22- and 24-carbon (n-3) and (n-6) unsaturated fatty acids by rat testes and liver.
The unsaturated fatty acid composition of phospholipids from different tissues frequently varies. Rat liver phospholipids contain esterified 22:6(n-3) while 22:5(n-6) is the major esterified 22-carbon acid in testes phospholipids. Both testes and liver synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acids. Microsomes, particularly from liver, have been used extensively to measure reaction rates as they relate to polyunsaturated fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis. None of these rate studies explain why specific acids are synthesized and subsequently esterified. In this study we compared the metabolism of [3-14C]-labeled (n-3) and (n-6) acids when injected via the tail vein, as a measure of hepatic metabolism, versus when they were injected directly into the testes. Liver preferentially metabolizes [3-14C]-labeled 24:5(n-3) and 24:6(n-3) to yield esterified 22:6(n-3), when compared with the conversion of [3-14C]-labeled 24:4(n-6) and 24:5(n-6) to yield 22:5(n-6). Both 24-carbon (n-3) acids were also converted to 22:5(n-3) but no labeled 22:4(n-6) was detected after injecting the two 24-carbon (n-6) acids. Differences in the hepatic metabolism of 24-carbon (n-3) and (n-6) acids to 22:6(n-3) and 22:5(n-6), versus their partial beta-oxidation to 22:5(n-3) and 22:4(n-6), are important in vivo controls. Surprisingly, in testes a higher percentage of radioactivity was found in esterified 22:6(n-3) versus 22:5(n-6) following injections, respectively, of [3-14C]-labeled 22:5(n-3) versus 22:4(n-6), which is the corresponding metabolic analog. Corresponding pairs of 24-carbon (n-3) and (n-6) acids, as they relate to metabolism, were processed in similar ways by testes. The relative absence of esterified 22-carbon (n-3) fatty acids, versus the abundance of 22- and 24-carbon (n-6) acids in testes phospholipids, does not appear per se to be due to differences in the ability of testes to metabolize (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids. It remains to be determined if there is selective uptake of specific fatty acids by testes for use as precursors to synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acids. (+info)
Dietary n-3 PUFA increases the apoptotic response to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, reduces mitosis and suppresses the induction of carcinogenesis in the rat colon.
The effect of dietary fish oil on colonic crypt cell apoptosis and proliferation was examined in male Wistar rats, 24 and 48 h after administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), and its influence on the induction of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the distal colon was assessed. Rats (125-150 g) fed a high-fat semi-synthetic diet containing corn oil (CO) were given DMH (30 mg/kg body wt) or a sham injection of EDTA/NaCl. Animals were then fed either the CO diet or a diet in which fish oil (EPA 18.7%; DHA 8%) was substituted for corn oil. Subgroups of rats (n = 5) were killed after 24 and 48 h, and crypt cell apoptosis and proliferation were quantified by morphological criteria in isolated intact crypts from the mid and distal colon. Consumption of the fish oil diet (FO) was associated with increased apoptotic cell death (P < 0.001) and suppression of proliferation (P < 0.05) in colonic crypts both 24 and 48 h after DMH. In a second experiment, animals were given three injections of DMH or sham injections of carrier at weekly intervals. For 48 h after each injection animals were fed either the CO or FO diet, but otherwise maintained on the CO throughout. The number and crypt multiplicity of ACF in the distal colon were determined after 18 weeks, and animals given the FO diet for the 48 h period following carcinogen administration were found to have significantly fewer ACF than rats fed the CO diet (P < 0.05). The data demonstrate that the fatty acid composition of the diet is an important determinant in the induction of carcinogenesis by DMH. The proliferative and apoptotic response of the colonic crypt to carcinogen and fish oil, coupled with the reduced incidence of ACF, suggest n-3 PUFA can protect against the carcinogenic effects of DMH by mediating changes in the balance proliferation and cell death. (+info)
Fish intake, independent of apo(a) size, accounts for lower plasma lipoprotein(a) levels in Bantu fishermen of Tanzania: The Lugalawa Study.
Plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are largely genetically determined by sequences linked to the gene encoding apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], the distinct protein component of Lp(a). Apo(a) is highly polymorphic in length due to variation in the numbers of a sequence encoding the apo(a) kringle 4 domain, and plasma levels of Lp(a) are inversely correlated with apo(a) size. In 2 racially homogeneous Bantu populations from Tanzania differing in their dietary habits, we found that median plasma levels of Lp(a) were 48% lower in those living on a fish diet than in those living on a vegetarian diet. Considering the relationship between apo(a) size and Lp(a) plasma concentration, we have extensively evaluated apo(a) isoform distribution in the 2 populations to determine the impact of apo(a) size in the determination of Lp(a) values. The majority of individuals (82% of the fishermen and 80% of the vegetarians) had 2 expressed apo(a) alleles. Additionally, the fishermen had a high frequency of large apo(a) isoforms, whereas a higher frequency of small isoforms was found in the vegetarians. When subjects from the 2 groups were matched for apo(a) phenotype, the median Lp(a) value was 40% lower in Bantus on the fish diet than in those on the vegetarian diet. A significant inverse relationship was also found between plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and Lp(a) levels (r=-0.24, P=0.01). The results of this study are consistent with the concept that a diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and not genetic differences, is responsible for the lower plasma levels of Lp(a) in the fish-eating Bantus and strongly suggest that a sustained fish-based diet is able to lower plasma levels of Lp(a). (+info)