(1/158) Comparison of the backbone dynamics of the apo- and holo-carboxy-terminal domain of the biotin carboxyl carrier subunit of Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
The biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) is a subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid biosynthesis. In its functional cycle, this protein engages in heterologous protein-protein interactions with three distinct partners, depending on its state of post-translational modification. Apo-BCCP interacts specifically with the biotin holoenzyme synthetase, BirA, which results in the post-translational attachment of biotin to a single lysine residue on BCCP. Holo-BCCP then interacts with the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which leads to the addition of the carboxylate group of bicarbonate to biotin. Finally, the carboxy-biotinylated form of BCCP interacts with transcarboxylase in the transfer of the carboxylate to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. The determinants of protein-protein interaction specificity in this system are unknown. The NMR solution structure of the unbiotinylated form of an 87 residue C-terminal domain fragment (residue 70-156) of BCCP (holoBCCP87) and the crystal structure of the biotinylated form of a C-terminal fragment (residue 77-156) of BCCP from Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase have previously been determined. Comparative analysis of these structures provided evidence for small, localized conformational changes in the biotin-binding region upon biotinylation of the protein. These structural changes may be important for regulating specific protein-protein interactions. Since the dynamic properties of proteins are correlated with local structural environments, we have determined the relaxation parameters of the backbone 15N nuclear spins of holoBCCP87, and compared these with the data obtained for the apo protein. The results indicate that upon biotinylation, the inherent mobility of the biotin-binding region and the protruding thumb, with which the biotin group interacts in the holo protein, are significantly reduced. (+info)
(2/158) Light-dependent changes in redox status of the plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and its regulatory component.
Plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase; EC 126.96.36.199), which catalyses the synthesis of malonyl-CoA and is the regulatory enzyme of fatty acid synthesis, is activated by light, presumably under redox regulation. To obtain evidence of redox regulation in vivo, the activity of ACCase was examined in pea chloroplasts isolated from plants kept in darkness (dark-ACCase) or after exposure to light for 1 h (light-ACCase) in the presence or absence of a thiol-reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT). The protein level was similar for light-ACCase and dark-ACCase, but the activity of light-ACCase in the absence of DTT was approx. 3-fold that of dark-ACCase. The light-ACCase and dark-ACCase were activated approx. 2-fold and 6-fold by DTT respectively, indicating that light-ACCase was in a much more reduced, active form than the dark-ACCase. This is the first demonstration of the light-dependent reduction of ACCase in vivo. Measurement of the activities of ACCase, carboxyltransferase and biotin carboxylase in the presence and absence of DTT, and the thiol-oxidizing agent, 5, 5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic) acid, revealed that the carboxyltransferase reaction, but not the biotin carboxylase reaction, was redox-regulated. The cysteine residue(s) responsible for redox regulation probably reside on the carboxyltransferase component. Measurement of the pH dependence of biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase activities in the ACCase suggested that both components affect the activity of ACCase in vivo at a physiological pH range. These results suggest that the activation of ACCase by light is caused partly by the pH-dependent activation of two components and by the reductive activation of carboxyltransferase. (+info)
(3/158) Sec-dependent pathway and DeltapH-dependent pathway do not share a common translocation pore in thylakoidal protein transport.
Thylakoidal proteins of plant chloroplasts are transported to thylakoids via several different pathways, including the DeltapH-dependent and the Sec-dependent pathways. In this study, we asked if these two pathways utilize a common translocation pore. A fusion protein consisting of a 23-kDa subunit of the oxygen evolving complex and Escherichia coli biotin carboxyl carrier protein was biotinylated in E. coli cells and purified. When incubated with isolated pea thylakoids in the absence of avidin, the purified fusion protein was imported into the thylakoids via the DeltapH-dependent pathway. However in the presence of avidin, the fusion protein became lodged in the thylakoid membranes, with its N terminus reaching the thylakoidal lumen, while its C-terminal segment complexed with avidin exposed on the thylakoidal surface. The translocation intermediate of the fusion protein inhibited the import of authentic 23-kDa subunit, suggesting that it occupies a putative translocation pore for the DeltapH-dependent pathway. However the intermediate did not block import of the 33-kDa subunit of the oxygen evolving complex, which is a substrate for the Sec-dependent pathway. These results provide evidence against the possibility of a common translocation pore shared by the Sec-dependent pathway and the DeltapH-dependent pathway. (+info)
(4/158) Polyketide synthase acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a substrate and a catalyst for malonyl ACP biosynthesis.
BACKGROUND: Using an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a starter unit, type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) generate a wide range of polyketide products by successive decarboxylative condensations with the two-carbon donor malonyl (ACP). In vitro experiments have demonstrated that polyketide biosynthesis in reconstituted PKS systems requires the fatty acid synthase (FAS) enzyme malonyl CoA:ACP acyltransferase (FabD) from streptomycetes. It has also been shown that holo-ACPs from a type II PKS can catalyze self-malonylation in the presence of malonyl CoA and negate this FabD requirement. The relative roles of FabD and ACP self-malonylation in PKS biosynthesis in vivo are still not known. RESULTS: We have examined the ACP specificity of the Streptomyces glaucescens FabD and shown that it reacts specifically with monomeric forms of ACP, with comparable k(cat)/K(M) values for ACPs from both type II PKS and FAS systems. Incubations of tetracenomycin ACP (TcmM) with the Escherichia coli FAS ACP (AcpP) unexpectedly revealed that, in addition to the self-malonylation process, TcmM can catalyze the malonylation of AcpP. The k(cat)/K(M) value for the TcmM-catalyzed malonylation of S. glaucescens FAS ACP is two orders of magnitude smaller than that observed for the FabD-catalyzed process. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of a PKS ACP to catalyze malonylation of a FAS ACP is a surprising finding and demonstrates for the first time that PKS ACPs and FabD can catalyze the same reaction. The differences in the catalytic efficiency of these two proteins rationalizes in vitro observations that FabD-independent polyketide biosynthesis proceeds only at high concentrations of a PKS ACP. (+info)
(5/158) Kinetic analysis of the actinorhodin aromatic polyketide synthase.
Type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that catalyze the biosynthesis of a broad range of natural products. A core set of subunits, consisting of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein (ACP) and possibly a malonyl CoA:ACP transacylase (MAT) forms a "minimal" PKS. They generate a poly-beta-ketone backbone of a specified length from malonyl-CoA derived building blocks. Here we (a) report on the kinetic properties of the actinorhodin minimal PKS, and (b) present further data in support of the requirement of the MAT. Kinetic analysis showed that the apoACP is a competitive inhibitor of minimal PKS activity, demonstrating the importance of protein-protein interactions between the polypeptide moiety of the ACP and the remainder of the minimal PKS. In further support of the requirement of MAT for PKS activity, two new findings are presented. First, we observe hyperbolic dependence of PKS activity on MAT concentration, saturating at very low amounts (half-maximal rate at 19.7 +/- 5.1 nM). Since MAT can support PKS activity at less than 1/100 the typical concentration of the ACP and ketosynthase/chain length factor components, it is difficult to rule out the presence of trace quantities of MAT in a PKS reaction mixture. Second, an S97A mutant was constructed at the nucleophilic active site of the MAT. Not only can this mutant protein support PKS activity, it is also covalently labeled by [(14)C]malonyl-CoA, demonstrating that the serine nucleophile (which has been the target of PMSF inhibition in earlier studies) is dispensible for MAT activity in a Type II PKS system. (+info)
(6/158) Heterologous expression, purification, reconstitution and kinetic analysis of an extended type II polyketide synthase.
BACKGROUND: Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that synthesize a broad range of natural products. The 'minimal' PKS consists of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein and a malonyl transferase. Auxiliary components (ketoreductases, aromatases and cyclases are involved in controlling the oxidation level and cyclization of the nascent polyketide chain. We describe the heterologous expression and reconstitution of several auxiliary PKS components including the actinorhodin ketoreductase (act KR), the griseusin aromatase/cyclase (gris ARO/CYC), and the tetracenomycin aromatase/cyclase (tcm ARO/CYC). RESULTS: The polyketide products of reconstituted act and tcm PKSs were identical to those identified in previous in vivo studies. Although stable protein-protein interactions were not detected between minimal and auxiliary PKS components, kinetic analysis revealed that the extended PKS comprised of the act minimal PKS, the act KR and the gris ARO/CYC had a higher turnover number than the act minimal PKS plus the act KR or the act minimal PKS alone. Adding the tcm ARO/CYC to the tcm minimal PKS also increased the overall rate. CONCLUSIONS: Until recently the principal strategy for functional analysis of PKS subunits was through heterologous expression of recombinant PKSs in Streptomyces. Our results corroborate the implicit assumption that the product isolated from whole-cell systems is the dominant product of the PKS. They also suggest that an intermediate is channeled between the various subunits, and pave the way for more detailed structural and mechanistic analysis of these multienzyme systems. (+info)
(7/158) Recombinant carboxyltransferase responsive to redox of pea plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase regulates the rate of fatty acid synthesis. This enzyme in plants is localized in plastids and is believed to be composed of biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase, and carboxyltransferase made up of alpha and beta polypeptides, although the enzyme has not been purified yet. Accumulated evidence shows that pea plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase is activated by light and the activation is caused by light-dependent reduction of carboxyltransferase, but not of biotin carboxylase, via a redox cascade. To understand the reductive activation of carboxyltransferase at the molecular level here, we obtained the active enzyme composed of decahistidine-tagged (His tag) alpha and beta polypeptides through the expression of the pea plastidic carboxyltransferase gene in Escherichia coli. Gel filtration showed that the molecular size of the recombinant carboxyltransferase is in agreement with that of partially purified carboxyltransferase from pea chloroplasts. The catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme was similar to that of native carboxyltransferase. These results indicate that the molecular structure and conformation of recombinant carboxyltransferase resemble those of its native counterpart and that native carboxyltransferase is indeed composed of alpha and beta polypeptides. This recombinant enzyme was activated by dithiothreitol, a known reductant of S-S bonds, with a profile similar to that of its native counterpart. The recombinant enzyme was activated by reduced thioredoxin-f, a signal transducer of redox potential in chloroplasts under irradiation. Thus, this enzyme was redox-regulated, like that of the native carboxyltransferase. (+info)
(8/158) Identification of proteins of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae that specifically bind to C/C mismatches in DNA.
The pathways leading to G:C-->C:G transversions and their repair mechanisms remain uncertain. C/C and G/G mismatches arising during DNA replication are a potential source of G:C-->C:G transversions. The Escherichia coli mutHLS mismatch repair pathway efficiently corrects G/G mismatches, whereas C/C mismatches are a poor substrate. Escherichia coli must have a more specific repair pathway to correct C/C mismatches. In this study, we performed gel-shift assays to identify C/C mismatch-binding proteins in cell extracts of E. COLI: By testing heteroduplex DNA (34mers) containing C/C mismatches, two specific band shifts were generated in the gels. The band shifts were due to mismatch-specific binding of proteins present in the extracts. Cell extracts of a mutant strain defective in MutM protein did not produce a low-mobility complex. Purified MutM protein bound efficiently to the C/C mismatch-containing heteroduplex to produce the low-mobility complex. The second protein, which produced a high-mobility complex with the C/C mismatches, was purified to homogeneity, and the amino acid sequence revealed that this protein was the FabA protein of E.COLI: The high-mobility complex was not formed in cell extracts of a fabA mutant. From these results it is possible that MutM and FabA proteins are components of repair pathways for C/C mismatches in E.COLI: Furthermore, we found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae OGG1 protein, a functional homolog of E.COLI: MutM protein, could specifically bind to the C/C mismatches in DNA. (+info)