Plantar aponeurosis and internal architecture of the ball of the foot.
On the basis of its internal structure, the ball of the foot can be divided into three transverse areas, each with a different mechanical function: (1) an area proximal to the heads of the metatarsals in which the retinacula cutis are developed into a series of transverse bands, and in which the deep fibres of the plantar aponeurosis form ten sagittal septa connected to the deep transverse metatarsal ligament and through this the proximal phalanges of the toes, (2) an area below the heads of the metatarsals in which vertical fibres from the joint capsules and the sides of the fibrous flexor sheaths form a cushion below each metatarsal head, and in which fat bodies cover the digital nerves and vessels in their passage between the cushions, and (3) a distal area which comprises the interdigital web. The superficial fibres of the plantar aponeurosis are inserted into the skin of this distal area, and deep to them the plantar interdigital ligament forms a series of transverse lamellae connected to the proximal phalanges by a mooring ligament which arches from one fibrous flexor sheath to the next. When the metatarsophalangeal joints are extended, the fibres of the three areas are tensed and the skin is anchored firmly to the skeleton. The direction of the fibres in the distal and proximal area promotes the transfer of forces exerted on the skin during push-off and braking respectively, while the intermediate area is adapted to bear the weight of the body. A concentration of Pacinian corpuscles is found along the digital nerves in the weight-bearing area below the transverse metatarsal ligament. The nerves for the second, and especially for the third, interstice are close to or in contact with the sharp proximal edges of the sagittal septa. (+info)
The iliopubic tract: an important anatomical landmark in surgery.
A band of fascial thickening, termed the iliopubic tract, lies on the posterior aspect of the inguinal region and has been described in the surgical literature as playing an important role during herniorraphy. This study was undertaken to examine the gross and microscopic anatomy of the iliopubic tract in 12 cadavers. The results confirmed that the iliopubic tract can be readily identified as a thickening of the transversalis fascia running deep and parallel to the inguinal ligament. It attaches to the superomedial part of the pubic bone medially, but laterally its fibres fan out within the fascia transversalis and fascia iliaca without bony attachment to the iliac spines. In contrast to the inguinal ligament, the histological analysis of the iliopubic tract shows a high elastin to collagen ratio. The functional significance of this structure merits further study, but there is no doubt that it is important in many approaches to inguinal herniorraphy. For this reason it is considered that the iliopubic tract deserves greater emphasis in the anatomy teaching of the inguinal region. (+info)
Effect of the cytostatic agent idarubicin on fibroblasts of the human Tenon's capsule compared with mitomycin C.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the in vitro effect of a short time exposure to the anthracycline idarubicin on proliferation, protein synthesis, and motility of human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts in comparison with the antitumour antibiotic mitomycin C. METHODS: After determination of effective concentrations of idarubicin, fibroblasts of the human Tenon's capsule were exposed to idarubicin or mitomycin C at concentrations ranging from 0.1 microg/ml to 1 microg/ml or from 2.5 microg/ml to 250 microg/ml, respectively, for 0.5, 2, or 5 minutes and cultured for 60 days. Cell death by apoptosis caused by idarubicin treatment was confirmed by Hoechst 33258 staining. Further proliferation was explored by cell counting and by (3)H-thymidine uptake. Protein synthesis was measured by (3)H-proline uptake and motility was assessed by agarose droplet motility assay. RESULTS: Idarubicin is able to exert toxicity and to induce apoptosis during a short time exposure of 0.5 minutes at concentrations of 0.3-1 microg/ml resulting in a significant reduction in cell number compared with the control after 60 days. For mitomycin C, higher concentrations and longer expositions were necessary. Even after treatment with 1 microg/ml idarubicin or 250 microg/ml mitomycin C a few cells were able to incorporate (3)H-thymidine. (3)H-proline uptake up to 10 days after exposure to 0.3 microg/ml idarubicin was found not to be decreased. Cell motility was reduced after treatment with 1 microg/ml idarubicin for 5 minutes or with 250 microg/ml mitomycin C for 2 or 5 minutes. For low mitomycin C concentrations, an increase in motility was found during the first 10 days. CONCLUSION: Idarubicin reduces proliferation of human Tenons's capsule fibroblasts after incubation for 0.5 minutes at concentrations as low as 0.3-1 microg/ml. In comparison, mitomycin C requires longer exposure times and higher doses for equal results. Therefore, idarubicin may be useful in the prevention of glaucoma filtering surgery failure. (+info)
Grooved director aids fascial enlargement and closure.
Gallbladder retrieval following laparoscopic cholecystectomy through the umbilical or epigastric port site is at times tedious, may result in gallbladder perforation from excessive tearing forces applied to the gallbladder or from instrumental perforation while attempting to enlarge the fascia and is very "low tech" compared to the laparoscopic procedure. Port-site herniae develop when the fascia at either site is not closed adequately with sutures because of inadequate vision through the small incision and the concern for inadvertent injury to the tissues underlying the fascia. This study reports the use of a simple instrument, a spoon-shaped grooved director, to aid both the fascial enlargement and the fascial closure. The instrument has been used in more than 30 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and has been found to be simple, safe and effective for fascial enlargement and closure. This reusable instrument should be used routinely for laparoscopic cholecystectomy but offers significant advantages in the obese individual. (+info)
Dupuytren's disease. A model for the mechanism of fibrosis and its modulation by steroids.
Dupuytren's disease is a chronic inflammatory process which produces contractures of the fingers. The nodules present in Dupuytren's tissue contain inflammatory cells, mainly lymphocytes and macrophages. These express a common integrin known as VLA4. The corresponding binding ligands to VLA4 are vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) present on the endothelial cells and the CS1 sequence of the fibronectin present in the extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a peptide hormone which has a crucial role in the process of fibrosis. We studied tissue from 20 patients with Dupuytren's disease, four samples of normal palmar fascia from patients undergoing carpal tunnel decompression and tissue from ten patients who had received perinodular injections of depomedrone into the palm five days before operation. The distribution of VLA4, VCAM-1, CS1 fibronectin and TGF-beta was shown by immunohistochemistry using an alkaline phosphorylase method for light microscopy. In untreated Dupuytren's tissue CS1 fibronectin stained positively around the endothelial cells of blood vessels and also around the surrounding myofibroblasts, principally at the periphery of many of the active areas of the Dupuytren's nodule. VCAM-1 stained very positively for the endothelial cells of blood vessels surrounding and penetrating the areas of high nodular activity. VCAM-1 was more rarely expressed outside the blood vessels. VLA4 was expressed by inflammatory cells principally in and around the blood vessels expressing VCAM-1 and CS1 but also on some cells spreading into the nodule. TGF-beta stained positively around the inflammatory cells principally at the perivascular periphery of nodules. These cells often showed VLA4 expression and co-localised with areas of strong production of CS1 fibronectin. Normal palmar fascia contained only scanty amounts of CS1 fibronectin, almost no VCAM-1 and only an occasional cell staining positively for VLA4 or TGF-beta. In the steroid-treated group, VCAM-1 expression was downregulated in the endothelium of perinodular blood vessels and only occasional inflammatory cell expression remained. Expression of CS1 fibronectin was also much reduced but still occurred in the blood vessels and around the myofibroblast stroma. VLA4-expressing cells were also reduced in numbers. A similar but reduced distribution of production of TGF-beta was also noted. Our findings show that adherence of inflammatory cells to the endothelial wall and the extravasation into the periphery of the nodule may be affected by steroids, which reduce expression of VCAM-1 in vivo. This indicates that therapeutic intervention to prevent the recommencement of the chronic inflammatory process and subsequent fibrosis necessitating further surgery may be possible. (+info)
A case report of an unusual case of nodular fasciitis in the orbit presenting with unilateral proptosis is described, and the radiological features are outlined. The histological features are discussed and the benign nature of the lesion stressed. Nodular fasciitis arising in the orbit and presenting as unilateral proptosis has not previously been reported in the literature. (+info)
Reoperation for recurrent saphenofemoral incompetence: a prospective randomised trial using a reflected flap of pectineus fascia.
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: in 1978 Sheppard described using a flap of pectineus fascia in an attempt to reduce the further development of neovascularised veins at the saphenofemoral junction. The perceived benefits of this manoeuvre have not been tested by a prospective randomised trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: consecutive patients with symptomatic recurrent varicose veins referred to a single consultant were examined for evidence of further reflux from the saphenofemoral junction. This was subsequently confirmed in forty limbs (thirty-seven patients) by descending venography. All had features of a neovascularised segment. These patients were treated by complete exposure and ligation of the recurrences arising from the common femoral vein, with or without the placement of a flap of pectineus fascia (prospectively randomised). The patients were assessed a minimum of eighteen months later by both clinical examination and duplex ultrasound scanning. RESULTS: six patients were lost to follow-up. This left seventeen limbs remaining in each half of the study. The characteristics in each group were broadly matched. CONCLUSIONS: this study failed to demonstrate any apparent benefit from the application of a flap of pectineus fascia. Most patients showed evidence of re-recurrence arising from the common femoral vein. (+info)
Dermofasciectomy in the management of Dupuytren's disease.
Dupuytren's disease may present with well-defined subcutaneous cords or as more diffuse disease with involvement of the skin. Fasciectomy is the procedure commonly carried out for the full range of disease, but is associated with rates of recurrence of up to 66%. We reviewed 143 rays in 103 patients undergoing dermofasciectomy for diffuse disease with involvement of the skin. We found recurrence in 12 rays (8.4% of rays; 11.6% of patients) during a mean follow-up of 5.8 years, eight as cords and four as nodules. We suggest that dermofasciectomy is a better method of disease control than fasciectomy for the more diffuse type of disease with involvement of the skin. (+info)