Lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer in teachers.
A recent study found high rates of leukemia and related disorders among teachers. This finding may be related to exposure to childhood infections. Therefore, epidemiologic studies on the risk of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer among teachers were systematically reviewed. Altogether 26 relevant investigations were identified, most from ad hoc publications rather than from scientific journals. Elevated risks of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma were found in studies using proportional mortality or mortality odds ratios as outcome measures. However, these observations may reflect low overall mortality and do not necessarily indicate high death rates from the cancers of interest. In studies deriving standardized mortality or incidence ratios, the risk estimates were generally lower. The most striking finding was for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (approximate summary relative risk 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.62), but it was likely to have been exaggerated by publication bias. In conclusion, no compelling epidemiologic evidence exists for a hazard of leukemia or related diseases among teachers. (+info)
HIV stress in primary school teachers in Zambia.
A study was made of stress factors experienced by primary school teachers in Zambia after they had attended a course on stress management and counselling skills. Their pupils were significantly affected by poverty, death and illness of parents, fellow-pupils and teachers, teenage sex and pregnancy, violence in the home and, among girls, low self-esteem. The HIV epidemic had a major bearing on these factors, and there were wide-ranging effects on the teachers' own lives. Despite the training they had been given, many teachers felt that they could not adequately counsel their pupils on these matters. The teachers were in need of continuing support and training to enable them to cope with this aspect of their work. (+info)
Effectiveness of a prevention program for diabetic ketoacidosis in children. An 8-year study in schools and private practices.
OBJECTIVE: To shorten the period of carbohydrate intolerance preceding the diagnosis of IDDM in children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was studied in newly diagnosed diabetic children aged 6-14 years, in the area of Parma, Italy, 8 years after an information program on DKA was introduced to teachers, students, parents, and pediatricians. Information was provided by displaying a poster with a few practical messages in 177 primary and secondary public schools. The pediatricians working in the same area were given equipment for the measurement of both glycosuria and blood glucose levels, as well as cards listing guidelines for the early diagnosis of diabetes, to be given to patients. A toll-free number was also provided. Clinical and laboratory features of 24 young diabetic patients diagnosed in the Parma area (group 1) were compared with those of 30 patients coming from two nearby areas in which no campaign for the prevention of DKA had been carried out (group 2). RESULTS: From 1 January 1991 to 31 December 1997, DKA was diagnosed in 3 children from group 1 (12.5%) and in 25 children from group 2 (83.0%) (chi 2 = 26.8; P = 0.0001). The three cases of DKA in group 1 were observed in 1991 (n = 1) and in 1992 (n = 2). No patients from the Parma area who had DKA were admitted to our unit after 1992. The duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5.0 +/- 6.0 and 28.0 +/- 10.0 days (P < 0.0001), in groups 1 and 2, respectively, Metabolic derangements were less severe in patients of group 1 than in those of group 2. Hospitalization for the treatment of overt diabetes and for the teaching of self-management of the disease lasted 5.4 +/- 1.2 days in group 1 and 13.3 +/- 2.4 days in group 2 (P = 0.002). The total cost of the 8-year campaign was $23,470. CONCLUSIONS: The prevention program for DKA in diabetic children aged 6-14 years, carried out in the Parma area during the last 8 years, was successful. Thanks to this program, cumulative frequency of DKA in new-onset IDDM decreased from 78% during 1987-1991 to 12.5% during 1991-1997. None of the newly diagnosed diabetic children aged 6-14 years and from the Parma area were ever admitted to the hospital for DKA after 1992. (+info)
Effectiveness of a social influences smoking prevention program as a function of provider type, training method, and school risk.
OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of provider (nurse or teacher) and training method (workshop or self-preparation) on outcomes of a social influences smoking prevention program. METHODS: One hundred elementary schools were stratified by school risk score (high risk = high smoking rate among senior students) and assigned randomly to conditions: (1) teacher/self-preparation, (2) teacher/workshop, (3) nurse/self-preparation, (4) nurse/workshop, and (5) control. Intervention occurred in grades 6 to 8. Smoking status at the end of grade 8 was the primary endpoint variable. RESULTS: Intervention reduced grade 8 smoking rates in high-risk schools (smoking rates of 26.9% in control vs 16.0% in intervention schools) but not in low-risk schools. There were no significant differences in outcome as a function of training method and no significant differences in outcome between teacher-provided and nurse-provided interventions in high- and medium-risk schools. Although nurses achieved better outcomes than did teachers in low-risk schools, neither provider type achieved outcomes superior to the control condition in those schools. CONCLUSIONS: Workshop training did not affect outcomes. Teachers and nurses were equally effective providers. Results suggest that programming should target high-risk schools. (+info)
Career and parenting satisfaction among medical students, residents and physician teachers at a Canadian medical school.
BACKGROUND: Studies of career and parenting satisfaction have focused separately on medical students, residents and practising physicians. The objective of this study was to compare satisfaction across a spectrum of stages of medical career. METHODS: A survey of incoming medical students, current medical students, residents and physician teachers at the University of Saskatchewan was conducted in the spring of 1997. Response rates were 77% (43/56), 81% (177/218), 65% (134/206) and 39% (215/554) respectively. Factors assessed in the stepwise regression analysis were the effect of sex, parenting and level of training on the likelihood of recommending parenting to medical students or residents, and on parenting dissatisfaction, job dissatisfaction, career dissatisfaction and the importance of flexibility within the college program to accommodate family obligations. RESULTS: More male than female physician teachers had partners (92% v. 81%, p < 0.01) and were parents (94% v. 72%, p < 0.01). Female physician teachers spent equal hours per week at work compared with their male counterparts (mean 52 and 58 hours respectively) and more than double the weekly time on family and household work (36 v. 14 hours, p < 0.01). Physician teachers were the most likely respondents to recommend parenting to residents and their peers. Residents were the most dissatisfied with their parenting time. At all career stages women were less likely than men to recommend parenting, were more dissatisfied with the amount of time spent as parents and were more likely to regard flexibility within the college program as beneficial. There were no sex-related differences in job dissatisfaction and career dissatisfaction. However, married women were more dissatisfied with their jobs than were married men. Job dissatisfaction was greatest among medical students, and career dissatisfaction was greatest among residents. INTERPRETATION: The optimal timing of parenthood appears to be upon completion of medical training. Women were less likely to recommend parenting, less satisfied with the time available for parenting and more likely to value flexibility within the college program to accommodate family needs. These differences did not translate into women experiencing more job or career dissatisfaction. (+info)
Quantitative concept mapping in pulmonary physiology: comparison of student and faculty knowledge structures.
Quantitative concept mapping, in contrast with qualitative approaches, is rigorous scientifically and permits statistical analyses of data about concept learning. This study extends past quantitative research on the structure of student concept learning in pulmonary physiology. Pathfinder scaling is used to derive concept maps for medical and veterinary students and their physiology instructors at Northwestern University and the University of Wisconsin, respectively. The concept maps are evaluated for coherence (internal consistency), student-instructor similarity, and correlation of similarity with final examination scores. Results show that student and instructor concept maps are coherent and that student concept maps become increasingly similar to instructors' concept maps from pre- to postinstruction, but that student-instructor concept map similarity does not correlate with examination performance. Research outcomes are discussed concerning possible sources of variation in student and faculty knowledge structures. (+info)
Engaging colleges and universities as partners in Healthy Communities initiatives.
Colleges and universities have an important role to play in building healthier communities. In many communities, however, these institutions are viewed with mistrust and skepticism, not as partners or assets. Academics often fail to respect and value community resources; they often assume the role of experts when they approach communities, in the context of short-term projects that place a priority on their goals rather than on communities' goals. Yet, colleges and universities have much to contribute as partners with their communities, and there are many strategies that can be used to develop community-campus partnerships. Whether the leadership for such a partnership starts with the community or the campus is not particularly important as long as the collaboration moves forward in a way that honors and values the strengths and assets of each. (+info)
Prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children in a rural area of Tanzania.
AIMS: The study measured the prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children between 7 and 19 years of age in a rural area of Tanzania, and investigated whether teachers could successfully provide the first component of a school eye screening service. METHODS: Teachers from each of three primary schools in Mwanza Region tested visual acuity using a Snellen's E chart in 1438 pupils. 1386 of these pupils were then interviewed and underwent a full eye examination by an eye team. RESULTS: 10 pupils (0.7%) had bilateral poor eyesight (visual acuity worse than 6/12), and an additional 14 pupils (1.0%) had unilateral poor eyesight. Significant refractive errors causing visual acuity less than 6/12 (1.0%), strabismus (0. 5%), and amblyopia (0.2%) were uncommon. Overall, 76 pupils (5.5%) had active trachoma, though the prevalence was 15.5% in the poorest school. 73 pupils (5.3%) reported night blindness, eight (0.6%) had Bitot's spots, and 11 (0.8%) had corneal scars. Simple screening by teachers correctly identified 80% of the pupils who were found to have bilateral poor eyesight by the eye team, with 91% specificity. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of significant refractive errors was not high enough to justify a school eye screening programme solely for this purpose. However, a programme may be justified in areas where trachoma is common. Further research is needed to validate the frequent reports of night blindness and to establish the public health importance of vitamin A deficiency in this age group. (+info)