We have investigated the influence of alterations in plasma coagulation factor levels between 50% and 150% of their mean values for prothrombin, factor X, factor XI, factor IX, factor VII, factor VIII, factor V, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III (AT-III), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) as well as combinations of extremes, eg, 50% anticoagulants and 150% procoagulants or 50% procoagulants and 150% anticoagulants in a synthetic "plasma" system. The reaction systems were constructed in vitro using purified, natural, and recombinant proteins and synthetic phospholipid vesicles or platelets with the reactions initiated by recombinant tissue factor (TF)-factor VIIa complex (5 pmol/L). To investigate the influence of the protein C system, soluble thrombomodulin (Tm) was also added to the reaction mixture. For the most extreme situations in which the essential plasma procoagulants (prothrombin, and factors X, IX, V, and VIII) and the stoichiometric anticoagulants (AT-III and TFPI) were collectively and inversely altered by 50%, a 28-fold difference in the total available thrombin generated was observed. Variations of most of these proteins 50% above and below the "normal" range, with the remainder at 100%, had only modest influences on the peak and total levels of thrombin generated. The dominant factors influencing thrombin generation were prothrombin and AT-III. When these 2 components were held at 100% and all other plasma procoagulants were reduced to 50%, there was a 60% reduction in the available thrombin generated. No increase in the thrombin generated was observed when the 150% level of all plasma procoagulants other than prothrombin was evaluated. When only prothrombin was raised to 150%, and all other factors were maintained at 100%, the thrombin generated increased by 71% to 121%. When AT-III was at 50% and all other constituents were at 100%, thrombin production was increased by 104% to 196%. The additions of protein C and protein S over the 50% to 150% ranges with Tm at 0.1 nmol/L concentration had limited influence on thrombin generation. Individual variations in factors VII, XI, and X concentrations had little effect on the duration of the initiation phase, the peak thrombin level achieved, or the available thrombin generated. Paradoxically, increases in factor IX concentration to 150% led to lowered thrombin generation, while decreases to 50% led to enhanced thrombin generation, most likely a consequence of factor IX as a competitive substrate with factor X for factor VIIa-TF. Reductions in factor V or factor VIII concentration led to prolongations of the initiation phase, while the reduction of TFPI to 50% led to shortening of this phase. However, none of these alterations led to significant changes in the available thrombin generated. Based on these data, one might surmise that increases in prothrombin and reductions in AT-III, within the normal range, would be potential risk factors for thrombosis and that algorithms that combine normal factor levels may be required to develop predictive tests for thrombosis. (+info)
Factor XI messenger RNA in human platelets.
The bleeding diathesis associated with congenital deficiency of factor XI (FXI) is variable and correlates poorly with standard coagulation assays. Platelets are reported to contain FXI activity that may substitute for the plasma protein. The presence of this platelet activity in some patients deficient in plasma FXI could partly explain the variable bleeding associated with the deficiency state. Polyclonal antibodies to plasma FXI recognize a 220 kD platelet membrane protein distinct in structure from plasma FXI. The messenger RNA (mRNA) coding for this protein has been postulated to be an alternatively spliced FXI message lacking the fifth exon found in the liver (wild type) message. We analyzed RNA from platelets, leukocytes, and bone marrow for FXI mRNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology. Single FXI mRNA species were identified by RT-PCR in platelet and bone marrow RNA, but not leukocyte RNA, that are the same size as the message from liver RNA. Sequencing of PCR products confirmed that the FXI mRNA species in platelets is identical to the one in liver. Wild-type FXI mRNA was also identified in three leukemia cell lines with megakaryocyte features (MEG-01, HEL 92.1.7, and CHRF-288-11). The data show that platelets contain wild-type FXI mRNA. FXI protein, therefore, may be present in platelets and may be released during platelet activation. The data do not support the premise that the 220 kD platelet protein that cross-reacts with FXI antibodies is a product of an alternatively spliced mRNA from the FXI gene. (+info)
The PAN module: the N-terminal domains of plasminogen and hepatocyte growth factor are homologous with the apple domains of the prekallikrein family and with a novel domain found in numerous nematode proteins.
Based on homology search and structure prediction methods we show that (1) the N-terminal N domains of members of the plasminogen/hepatocyte growth factor family, (2) the apple domains of the plasma prekallikrein/coagulation factor XI family, and (3) domains of various nematode proteins belong to the same module superfamily, hereafter referred to as the PAN module. The patterns of conserved residues correspond to secondary structural elements of the known three-dimensional structure of hepatocyte growth factor N domain, therefore we predict a similar fold for all members of this superfamily. Based on available functional informations on apple domains and N domains, it is clear that PAN modules have significant functional versatility, they fulfill diverse biological functions by mediating protein-protein or protein-carbohydrate interactions. (+info)
Identification of amino acids in the factor XI apple 3 domain required for activation of factor IX.
Activated coagulation factor XI (factor XIa) proteolytically cleaves its substrate, factor IX, in an interaction requiring the factor XI A3 domain (Sun, Y., and Gailani, D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 29023-29028). To identify key amino acids involved in factor IX activation, recombinant factor XIa proteins containing alanine substitutions for wild-type sequence were expressed in 293 fibroblasts and tested in a plasma clotting assay. Substitutions for Ile(183)-Val(191) and Ser(195)-Ile(197) at the N terminus and for Ser(258)-Ser(264) at the C terminus of the A3 domain markedly decreased factor XI coagulant activity. The plasma protease prekallikrein is structurally homologous to factor XI, but activated factor IX poorly. A chimeric factor XIa molecule with the A3 domain replaced with A3 from prekallikrein (FXI/PKA3) activated factor IX with a K(m) 35-fold greater than that of wild-type factor XI. FXI/PKA3 was used as a template for a series of proteins in which prekallikrein A3 sequence was replaced with factor XI sequence to restore factor IX activation. Clotting and kinetics studies using these chimeras confirmed the results obtained with alanine mutants. Amino acids between Ile(183) and Val(191) are necessary for proper factor IX activation, but additional sequence between Ser(195) and Ile(197) or between Phe(260) and Ser(265) is required for complete restoration of activation. (+info)
Mechanisms for the involvement of high molecular weight kininogen in surface-dependent reactions of Hageman factor.
The mechanisms by which human high molecular weight kininogen (HMKrK) contributes to the surface-dependent activation of the Hageman factor systems have been studied. The ability of various mixtures of purified human Hageman factor (coagulation factor XII), HMrK, prekallikrein, and kaolin to activate coagulation factor XI was determined with factor XIa (activated factor XI) clotting assays. Hageman factor, HMrK and prekallikrein were required for maximal rates of activation of factor XI. A certain optimal mixture of purified Hageman factor, HMrK, prekallikrein, and kaolin gave the same rapid initial rate of activation of purified factor XI as an equivalent aliquot of factor XI-deficient plasma. This suggests that potent, surface-mediated activation of factor XI in plasma is explicable in terms of Hageman factor, HMrK, and prekallikrein. By studying separately some of the surface-dependent reactions involving Hageman factor, it was found that HMrK accelerated by at least an order of magnitude the following reactions: (i) the activation of factor XI by activated Hageman factor; (ii) the activation of prekallikrein by activated Hageman factor; and (iii) the activation of Hageman factor by kallikrein. Stoichiometric rather than catalytic amounts of HMrK gave optimal activation of factor XI. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that HMrK and Hageman factor form a complex on kaolin which renders Hageman factor more susceptible to proteolytic activation by kallikrein and which facilitates the action of activated Hageman factor on its substrate proteins, factor XI and prekallikrein. (+info)
High levels of coagulation factor XI as a risk factor for venous thrombosis.
BACKGROUND: Factor XI, a component of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, contributes to the generation of thrombin, which is involved in both the formation of fibrin and protection against fibrinolysis. A deficiency of factor XI is associated with bleeding, but a role of high factor XI levels in thrombosis has not been investigated. METHODS: We determined factor XI antigen levels in the patients enrolled in the Leiden Thrombophilia Study, a large population-based, case-control study (with a total of 474 patients and 474 controls) designed to estimate the contributions of genetic and acquired factors to the risk of deep venous thrombosis. Odds ratios were calculated as a measure of relative risk. RESULTS: The age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio for deep venous thrombosis in subjects who had factor XI levels above the 90th percentile, as compared with those who had factor XI levels at or below that value, was 2.2 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.2). There was a dose-response relation between the factor XI level and the risk of venous thrombosis. Adjustment of the odds ratios for other risk factors such as oral-contraceptive use, homocysteine, fibrinogen, factor VIII, female sex, and older age did not alter the result. Also, when we excluded subjects who had known genetic risk factors for thrombosis (e.g., protein C or S deficiency, antithrombin deficiency, the factor V Leiden mutation, or the prothrombin G20210A mutation), the odds ratio remained the same, indicating that the risk of venous thrombosis associated with elevated levels of factor XI was not the result of one of the known risk factors for thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of factor XI are a risk factor for deep venous thrombosis, with a doubling of the risk at levels that are present in 10 percent of the population. (+info)
Thrombin-mediated feedback activation of factor XI on the activated platelet surface is preferred over contact activation by factor XIIa or factor XIa.
To study the pathways for initiation of intrinsic blood coagulation, activated human platelets were compared with dextran sulfate as surfaces for factor XI activation by factor XIIa, factor XIa, or thrombin. Activated gel-filtered platelets promoted the activation of factor XI (60 nm) by thrombin (0.02-10 nm, EC(50) approximately 100 pm, threshold concentration approximately 10 pm) at initial rates 2- to 3-fold greater than those obtained with dextran sulfate in the presence of either high molecular weight kininogen (45 nm) and ZnCl(2) (25 micrometer) or prothrombin (1.2 micrometer) and CaCl(2) (2 mm). The maximum rates of factor XI activation achieved in the presence of activated gel-filtered platelets were 30 nm.min(-1) with thrombin, 6 nm.min(-1) with factor XIIa and 2 nm.min(-1) with factor XIa. Values of turnover number calculated at various enzyme concentrations (0.05-1 nm) were 24-167 (mean = 86) min(-1) for thrombin, 4.6-50 (mean = 21) min(-1) for factor XIIa, and 1.3-14 (mean = 8) min(-1) for factor XIa. A physiological concentration of fibrinogen (9.0 micrometer) inhibited factor XI activation by thrombin (but not by factor XIIa) in the presence of dextran sulfate but not in the presence of gel-filtered platelets. Compared with factors XIIa and XIa, thrombin is the preferred factor XI activator, and activated platelets are a relevant physiological surface for thrombin-mediated initiation of intrinsic coagulation in vivo. (+info)
The role of high molecular weight kininogen and prothrombin as cofactors in the binding of factor XI A3 domain to the platelet surface.
We have reported that prothrombin (1 microm) is able to replace high molecular weight kininogen (45 nm) as a cofactor for the specific binding of factor XI to the platelet (Baglia, F. A., and Walsh, P. N. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 2271-2281). We have also determined that prothrombin fragment 2 binds to the Apple 1 domain of factor XI at or near the site where high molecular weight kininogen binds. A region of 31 amino acids derived from high molecular weight kininogen (HK31-mer) can also bind to factor XI (Tait, J. F., and Fujikawa, K. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 11651-11656). We therefore investigated the role of prothrombin fragment 2 and HK31-mer as cofactors in the binding of factor XI to activated platelets. Our experiments demonstrated that prothrombin fragment 2 (1 microm) or the HK31-mer (8 microm) are able to replace high molecular weight kininogen (45 nm) or prothrombin (1 microm) as cofactors for the binding of factor XI to the platelet. To localize the platelet binding site on factor XI, we used mutant full-length recombinant factor XI molecules in which the platelet binding site in the Apple 3 domain was altered by alanine scanning mutagenesis. The recombinant factor XI with alanine substitutions at positions Ser(248), Arg(250), Lys(255), Leu(257), Phe(260), or Gln(263) were defective in their ability to bind to activated platelets. Thus, the interaction of factor XI with platelets is mediated by the amino acid residues Ser(248), Arg(250), Lys(255), Leu(257), Phe(260), and Gln(263) within the Apple 3 domain. (+info)