Craniofacial pain and motor function: pathogenesis, clinical correlates, and implications.
Many structural, behavioral, and pharmacological interventions imply that favorable treatment effects in musculoskeletal pain states are mediated through the correction of muscle function. The common theme of these interventions is captured in the popular idea that structural or psychological factors cause muscle hyperactivity, muscle overwork, muscle fatigue, and ultimately pain. Although symptoms and signs of motor dysfunction can sometimes be explained by changes in structure, there is strong evidence that they can also be caused by pain. This new understanding has resulted in a better appreciation of the pathogenesis of symptoms and signs of the musculoskeletal pain conditions, including the sequence of events that leads to the development of motor dysfunction. With the improved understanding of the relationship between pain and motor function, including the inappropriateness of many clinical assumptions, a new literature emerges that opens the door to exciting therapeutic opportunities. Novel treatments are expected to have a profound impact on the care of musculoskeletal pain and its effect on motor function in the not-too-distant future. (+info)
Musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and shoulders in female sewing machine operators: prevalence, incidence, and prognosis.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the occurrence and persistence of two restrictively defined neck-shoulder disorders among sewing machine operators. To assess factors associated with the development of neck-shoulder disorder and prognostic factors for remaining a case, when disorders were already present. METHODS: In an initial group of 243 sewing machine operators, 178 were followed up for 2 years. At baseline and at 1 and 2 years follow up the participants underwent a clinical examination of the neck and arms and filled in a questionnaire about current musculoskeletal complaints. Clinical criteria for two main neck-shoulder disorders were defined: rotator cuff tendinitis and myofascial pain syndrome. A baseline control group consisted of 357 women with varied non-repetitive work. RESULTS: At baseline the overall prevalence of myofascial pain syndrome and rotator cuff tendinitis was 15.2% and 5.8% among sewing machine operators compared with 9.0% and 2.2%, respectively, among controls. The presence of the disorders was strongly associated with a self perception of poor general health. Although myofascial pain syndrome showed a U shaped association with years as a sewing machine operator, rotator cuff tendinitis was absent among the newest recruits and present among 15% of the women with more than 20 years as a sewing machine operator. Besides years as a sewing machine operator, the risk of having a neck-shoulder disorder at baseline was significantly associated with high stress (prevalence ratio (PR)=2.54; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.28 to 5.05) when adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, living alone with children, job strain, and social support from colleagues and supervisors. Only one of 13 participants with rotator cuff tendinitis at baseline recovered during follow up. Myofascial pain syndrome showed a much more fluctuating tendency. Low social support (RR 3.72; 95% CI 1.22 to 11.30) and smoking (RR 3.93; 95% CI 1.33 to 11.58) were associated with the development of neck-shoulder disorders, which was also associated with neck-shoulder pain score and living alone with children. CONCLUSION: Rotator cuff tendinitis showed a higher degree of persistence than myofascial pain syndrome. Both disorders highly influenced the perception of general health. Women who lived alone with children, were smokers, or experienced low support from colleagues and supervisors had a higher risk of contracting a neck-shoulder disorder. (+info)
Myofascial pain syndrome in farmers--a comprehensive approach to treatment.
There is evidence that chronic pain disorders such as Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS), resulting from repeated biomechanical stress caused by ergonomic hazards. e.g. trauma and overuse of the muscles, often occur in agricultural workers. Hypothetically, the neuropathic character of MPS makes the disease unresponsive to the typical analgesics. Accordingly, in this study three trials of treatment in patients with MPS were performed and compared. The first trial (I) was based on rehabilitation, while the second (II) was based on treatment with sertraline, an antidepressive, serotoninergic drug. For third trial (III), rehabilitation plus the above-mentioned administration of sertraline, were applied. Altogether, 49 patients were recruited to the trials. Control group consisted of 23 persons. Response to the treatment was assessed according to the criteria of neuropsychological tests MADRS and BDI. The MPS syndrome was found to be relatively common in Polish farmers and formed 12.7% of all chronic pain syndromes diagnosed in the Institute of Agricultural Medicine during 18 months. All the patients with MPS showed mood disorders in the baseline assessment by the neuropsychological tests. Patients from groups I, II, and III declared improvement after two months of the treatment (77%, 80% and 93% respectively). In the neuropsychological tests, only patients treated with rehabilitation and sertraline (group III) showed statistically significant improvement in comparison with baseline assessment both after one month and after two months of the observation. Thus, rehabilitation and serotoninergic system modification might be a good solution in the management of MPS. (+info)
Randomised trial of acupuncture compared with conventional massage and "sham" laser acupuncture for treatment of chronic neck pain.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of acupuncture and conventional massage for the treatment of chronic neck pain. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Three outpatient departments in Germany. PARTICIPANTS: 177 patients aged 18-85 years with chronic neck pain. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly allocated to five treatments over three weeks with acupuncture (56), massage (60), or "sham" laser acupuncture (61). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: maximum pain related to motion (visual analogue scale) irrespective of direction of movement one week after treatment. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: range of motion (3D ultrasound real time motion analyser), pain related to movement in six directions (visual analogue scale), pressure pain threshold (pressure algometer), changes of spontaneous pain, motion related pain, global complaints (seven point scale), and quality of life (SF-36). Assessments were performed before, during, and one week and three months after treatment. Patients' beliefs in treatment were assessed. RESULTS: One week after five treatments the acupuncture group showed a significantly greater improvement in motion related pain compared with massage (difference 24.22 (95% confidence interval 16.5 to 31.9), P=0.0052) but not compared with sham laser (17.28 (10.0 to 24.6), P=0.327). Differences between acupuncture and massage or sham laser were greater in the subgroup who had had pain for longer than five years (n=75) and in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (n=129). The acupuncture group had the best results in most secondary outcome measures. There were no differences in patients' beliefs in treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture is an effective short term treatment for patients with chronic neck pain, but there is only limited evidence for long term effects after five treatments. (+info)
Neurogenic pain relief by repetitive transcranial magnetic cortical stimulation depends on the origin and the site of pain.
OBJECTIVE: Drug resistant neurogenic pain can be relieved by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex. This study was designed to assess the influence of pain origin, pain site, and sensory loss on rTMS efficacy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty right handed patients were included, suffering from intractable pain secondary to one of the following types of lesion: thalamic stroke, brainstem stroke, spinal cord lesion, brachial plexus lesion, or trigeminal nerve lesion. The pain predominated unilaterally in the face, the upper limb, or the lower limb. The thermal sensory thresholds were measured within the painful zone and were found to be highly or moderately elevated. Finally, the pain level was scored on a visual analogue scale before and after a 20 minute session of "real" or "sham" 10 Hz rTMS over the side of the motor cortex corresponding to the hand on the painful side, even if the pain was not experienced in the hand itself. RESULTS: and discussion: The percentage pain reduction was significantly greater following real than sham rTMS (-22.9% v -7.8%, p = 0.0002), confirming that motor cortex rTMS was able to induce antalgic effects. These effects were significantly influenced by the origin and the site of pain. For pain origin, results were worse in patients with brainstem stroke, whatever the site of pain. This was consistent with a descending modulation within the brainstem, triggered by the motor corticothalamic output. For pain site, better results were obtained for facial pain, although stimulation was targeted on the hand cortical area. Thus, in contrast to implanted stimulation, the target for rTMS procedure in pain control may not be the area corresponding to the painful zone but an adjacent one. Across representation plasticity of cortical areas resulting from deafferentation could explain this discrepancy. Finally, the degree of sensory loss did not interfere with pain origin or pain site regarding rTMS effects. CONCLUSION: Motor cortex rTMS was found to result in a significant but transient relief of chronic pain, influenced by pain origin and pain site. These parameters should be taken into account in any further study of rTMS application in chronic pain control. (+info)
The epidemiology of chronic syndromes that are frequently unexplained: do they have common associated factors?
BACKGROUND: Syndromes for which no physical or pathological changes can be found tend to be researched and managed in isolation although hypotheses suggest that they may be one entity. The objectives of our study were to investigate the co-occurrence, in the general population, of syndromes that are frequently unexplained and to evaluate whether they have common associated factors. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey that included 2,299 subjects who were registered with a General Medical Practice in North-west England and who completed full postal questionnaires (response rate 72%). The study investigated four chronic syndromes that are frequently unexplained: chronic widespread pain, chronic oro-facial pain, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue. Validated instruments were used to measure the occurrence of syndromes and to collect information on a variety of associated factors: demographic (age, gender), psychosocial (anxiety, depression, illness behaviour), life stressors, and reporting of somatic symptoms. RESULTS: We found that 587 subjects (27%) reported one or more syndromes: 404 (18%) reported one, 134 (6%) reported two, 34 (2%) reported three, and 15 (1%) reported all four syndromes. The occurrence of multiple syndromes was greater than would be expected by chance (P < 0.001). There were factors that were common across syndromes: female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.2], high levels of aspects of health anxiety like health worry preoccupation (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 2.8-4.4) and reassurance seeking behaviour (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.7), reporting of other somatic symptoms (OR = 3.6; 95% CI 2.9-4.4), and reporting of recent adverse life events (OR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.9-2.8). CONCLUSION: This study has shown that chronic syndromes that are frequently unexplained co-occur in the general population and share common associated factors. Primary care practitioners need to be aware of these characteristics so that management is appropriate at the outset. (+info)
Diferential diagnosis in atypical facial pain: a clinical study.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a sample of patients with atypical facial pain (AFP) in comparison to patients with symptomatic facial pain (SFP). METHOD: 41 patients with previous diagnostic of AFP were submitted to a standardized evaluation protocol, by a multidisciplinary pain team. RESULTS: 21 (51.2%) were considered AFP and 20 (48.8%) (SFP) received the following diagnosis: 8 (40.0%) had temporomandibular disorders (TMD); 3 (15.0%) had TMD associated to systemic disease (fibromyalgia, systemic erythematosus lupus); 4 (20.0%) had neuropathy after ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery for petroclival tumor; 2 (10.0%) had Wallenberg syndrome; 1 (5.0%) had intracranial tumor; 1 (5.0%) had oral cancer (epidermoid carcinoma), and 1 (5.0%) had burning mouth syndrome (BMS) associated to fibromyalgia. Spontaneous descriptors of pain were not different between AFP and SFP groups (p=0.82). Allodynia was frequent in SFP (p=0.05) and emotion was the triggering factor most prevalent in AFP (p=0.06). AFP patients had more traumatic events previously to pain (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: AFP patients had more: a) traumatic events previously to pain onset, and b) emotions as a triggering factor for pain. These data support the need of trained health professionals in multidisciplinary groups for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of these patients. (+info)
A pilot study investigating the effects of fast left prefrontal rTMS on chronic neuropathic pain.