Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma are uncommon. Preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumour as schwannoma is difficult when facial nerve function is normal. A rare case of solitary schwannoma involving the upper branch of the facial nerve is described and the literature on the subject is reviewed. (+info)
Parotid swellings: report of 110 consecutive cases.
Parotid swellings are uncommon. Over a twelve-year period, 110 cases of parotid swellings were treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, of which 97 cases were histologically proven to be parotid tumours. 75% of these tumours were benign tumours, and 80% of the benign tumours were pleomorphic adenomas. Among the malignant tumours, 6 cases were adenoid cystic carcinoma and 5 were carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma. There were equal number of male to female patients, with an age range of 14 to 83 years. There is a positive correlation between the final histological diagnosis and FNAC results in 74% of cases. Surgical treatment of choice for benign parotid tumours was near-total parotidectomy whilst for malignant tumours was total radical parotidectomy with sural nerve graft. (+info)
Neurosyphilis as a cause of facial and vestibulocochlear nerve dysfunction: MR imaging features.
The prevalence of syphilis increased for several decades before the mid-1990s in the United States, particularly in the southern states. We report a case of neurosyphilis causing bilateral facial and vestibulocochlear nerve dysfunction in which the diagnosis was not initially suspected based on the patient's demographics and history. The MR imaging features helped to make the diagnosis in this case and to exclude other possible causes of multiple cranial nerve dysfunction in this patient. Hearing loss associated with neurosyphilis is one of the few treatable forms of progressive hearing loss, and it is essential that a diagnosis of neurosyphilis be made expeditiously. (+info)
Can continuous intraoperative facial electromyography predict facial nerve function following cerebellopontine angle surgery?
Intraoperative cranial nerve monitoring has significantly improved the preservation of facial nerve function following surgery in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Facial electromyography (EMG) was performed in 60 patients during CPA surgery. Pairs of needle electrodes were placed subdermally in the orbicularis oris and orbicularis oculi muscles. The duration of facial EMG activity was noted. Facial EMG potentials occurring in response to mechanical or metabolic irritation of the corresponding nerve were made audible by a loudspeaker. Immediate (4-7 days after tumor excision) and late (6 months after surgery) facial nerve function was assessed on a modified House-Brackmann scale. Late facial nerve function was good (House-Brackmann 1-2) in 29 of 60 patients, fair (House-Brackmann 3-4) in 14, and poor (House-Brackmann 5-6) in 17. Postmanipulation facial EMG activity exceeding 5 minutes in 15 patients was associated with poor late function in five, fair function in six, and good function in four cases. Postmanipulation facial EMG activity of 2-5 minutes in 30 patients was associated with good late facial nerve function in 20, fair in eight, and poor in two. The loss of facial EMG activity observed in 10 patients was always followed by poor function. Facial nerve function was preserved postoperatively in all five patients in whom facial EMG activity lasted less than 2 minutes. Facial EMG is a sensitive method for identifying the facial nerve during surgery in the CPA. EMG bursts are a very reliable indicator of intraoperative facial nerve manipulation, but the duration of these bursts do not necessarily correlate with short- or long-term facial nerve function despite the fact that burst duration reflects the severity of mechanical aggression to the facial nerve. (+info)
Huge facial schwannoma extending into the middle cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle without facial nerve palsy--case report.
A 46-year-old male presented with a huge facial schwannoma extending into both the middle cranial fossa and the cerebellopontine angle but without manifesting facial nerve palsy. Neurological examination on admission revealed no deficits except for speech disturbance. Computed tomography showed a multicystic tumor extending into the middle cranial fossa and the cerebellopontine angle, with destruction of the petrous bone. The tumor was totally grossly removed. Histological examination identified schwannoma. Total facial nerve palsy appeared postoperatively, but hearing acuity was preserved at a useful level. Facial nerve palsy is one of the most typical symptoms in patients with facial schwannoma, but is not always manifested even if the tumor extends into both the middle cranial fossa and the cerebellopontine angle. (+info)
Hemifacial spasm due to cerebellopontine angle meningiomas--two case reports.
A 54-year-old female and a 49-year-old female presented with complaints of hemifacial spasm. Both patients underwent surgery to remove cerebellopontine angle meningiomas. In one case, no vascular compression was observed at the root exit zone. The tumor was removed subtotally leaving residual tumor adhered to the lower cranial nerves. The hemifacial spasm disappeared immediately after the operation. The residual tumor was treated using gamma knife radiosurgery. In the other case, the root exit zone of the facial nerve was compressed by both the tumor and anterior inferior cerebellar artery and the tumor was removed totally. Postoperatively, the hemifacial spasm disappeared, but the patient suffered facial nerve paresis and deafness that was probably due to intraoperative manipulation. However, the facial nerve paresis gradually improved. Cerebellopontine angle meningioma with hemifacial spasm must be treated by surgical resection limited to preserve cranial nerve function. Subtotal removal with subsequent radiosurgery to treat the remaining tumor tissue is one option for the treatment of cerebellopontine angle meningioma. (+info)
Multifocal pupillary light response fields in normal subjects and patients with visual field defects.
The optimal conditions for recording focal pupillary light responses with a multifocal stimulation technique were determined, and the technique was applied to normal subjects and patients with visual field defects. Thirty-seven hexagonal stimuli were presented on a TV monitor with a visual field of 40 degrees diameter under a constant background illumination. Using a slow (4.7 Hz) m-sequence, reliable focal responses were obtained in both normal subjects and patients. The pupillary field and visual field were well correlated in patients with retinal diseases, but the correlation was not strong in patients with optic-nerve diseases. Pupillary light responses were reduced in the blind hemifield in patients with post-geniculate lesions. These results indicate that the multifocal stimulation technique can be used clinically to obtain a pupillary field for objective visual field testing. (+info)
Temporal bone pathology in Wegener's granulomatosis.
This study aimed to demonstrate the temporal bone histopathology of two cases of Wegener's granulomatosis in which the initial symptoms were profound hearing loss and facial nerve palsy respectively. The first case, a woman of 44, suffered profound hearing loss which was remarkably improved by steroid and cyclophosphamide treatment for a time, and which seemed to be caused by invasion from granulation tissue filled in the tympanic cavity. The second case was a 61-year-old woman presenting with the facial nerve palsy. The bony canal of the horizontal portion of the facial nerve was destroyed due to granulation tissue which filled in the tympanic cavity, and granulomatous involvement was observed in the facial nerve. Wegener's granulomatosis can involve the middle ear and/or inner ear, causing hearing loss of conductive, mixed or sensorineural type. Pathogenesis of facial nerve palsy seems to be related to Wegener's granulomatous involvement of facial nerve, because the facial nerve palsy also resolved by using steroid and cyclophosphamide. (+info)