Temporomandibular joint ankylosis: the Egyptian experience.
This is a review of 204 patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis treated according to a definitive protocol in the Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Department of the Alexandria University Hospital during the period 1990-1996 with a follow-up varying from 1.5 to 7 years. A history of trauma was confirmed in 98% of cases. Patients were grouped into: (1) Those with ankylosis not associated with facial deformities. The management involves release of the ankylosed joint(s) and reconstruction of the condyle ramus unit(s) (CRUs) using costochondral graft(s) (CCGs). (2) Those with mandibular ankylosis complicated by facial bone deformities, either asymmetric or bird face. The treatment consists of release of the ankylosis, reconstruction of the CRUs, and correction of jaw deformities--all performed simultaneously. Respiratory embarrassment was an important presenting symptom in the second group, all of whom complained of night snoring, eight of whom had obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). In this latter group, respiratory obstruction improved dramatically after surgical intervention. The degree of mouth opening, monitored as the interincisal distance (IID) improved from a range of 0-12 mm to over 30 mm in 62% of patients and to 20-30 mm in 29% of patients. However, reankylosis was still around 8% and was attributed to lack of patient compliance in 75% and to iatrogenic factors in 25% of patients. CCGs resorption, whether partial or complete, occurred in 27% of patients, resulting in retarded growth, relapse of deformities and night snoring. (+info)
Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness.
Several studies have found body and facial symmetry as well as attractiveness to be human mate choice criteria. These characteristics are presumed to signal developmental stability. Human body odour has been shown to influence female mate choice depending on the immune system, but the question of whether smell could signal general mate quality, as do other cues, was not addressed in previous studies. We compared ratings of body odour, attractiveness, and measurements of facial and body asymmetry of 16 male and 19 female subjects. Subjects wore a T-shirt for three consecutive nights under controlled conditions. Opposite-sex raters judged the odour of the T-shirts and another group evaluated portraits of the subjects for attractiveness. We measured seven bilateral traits of the subject's body to assess body asymmetry. Facial asymmetry was examined by distance measurements of portrait photographs. The results showed a significant positive correlation between facial attractiveness and sexiness of body odour for female subjects. We found positive relationships between body odour and attractiveness and negative ones between smell and body asymmetry for males only if female odour raters were in the most fertile phase of their menstrual cycle. The outcomes are discussed in the light of different male and female reproductive strategies. (+info)
Facial attractiveness, symmetry and cues of good genes.
Cues of phenotypic condition should be among those used by women in their choice of mates. One marker of better phenotypic condition is thought to be symmetrical bilateral body and facial features. However, it is not clear whether women use symmetry as the primary cue in assessing the phenotypic quality of potential mates or whether symmetry is correlated with other facial markers affecting physical attractiveness. Using photographs of men's faces, for which facial symmetry had been measured, we found a relationship between women's attractiveness ratings of these faces and symmetry, but the subjects could not rate facial symmetry accurately. Moreover, the relationship between facial attractiveness and symmetry was still observed, even when symmetry cues were removed by presenting only the left or right half of faces. These results suggest that attractive features other than symmetry can be used to assess phenotypic condition. We identified one such cue, facial masculinity (cheek-bone prominence and a relatively longer lower face), which was related to both symmetry and full- and half-face attractiveness. (+info)
Location of the glenoid fossa after a period of unilateral masticatory function in young rabbits.
Changes in glenoid fossa position and skull morphology after a period of unilateral masticatory function were studied. The right-side maxillary and mandibular molars in twenty-seven 10-day-old rabbits were ground down under general anaesthesia. The procedure was repeated twice a week, until the rabbits were 50 days old. Fourteen rabbits were then killed and 13 left to grow to age 100 days. Nine 50-day-old and sixteen 100-day-old rabbits with unmodified occlusions served as controls. Three-dimensional measurements were made using a machine-vision technique and a video-imaging camera. The glenoid fossa position become more anterior in both groups of animals subjected to molar grinding as compared with controls (P < 0.01 in the 50-day-old group and P < 0.05 in 100-day-old group). In the 100-day-old group the right-side fossa was also in a more inferior position (P < 0.01). The glenoid fossa was more anteriorly located on the right than on the left side of individual animals in the group in which the right-side molars had been ground down (P < 0.001). (+info)
Identification of an unbalanced cryptic translocation between the chromosomes 8 and 13 in two sisters with mild mental retardation accompanied by mild dysmorphic features.
Recently, much attention has been given to subtelomeric chromosomal rearrangements as important aetiological factors leading to idiopathic mental retardation. However, detection of these aberrations is difficult, mostly due to technical limitations and lack of genotype-phenotype relationships. We report on a family with a history suggestive of segregation of a chromosomal anomaly. In two mildly mentally retarded sisters with a similar phenotype consisting of obesitas, skin atrophy of the lower limbs and mild facial dysmorphisms, a subtle unbalanced cryptic translocation (46,XX,der(13)t(8;13)(q24.3;q34)) was detected on routine cytogenetic investigation followed by additional FISH studies. The translocation originated from the mother. (+info)
Computer tomographic and radiographic changes in the temporomandibular joints of two young adults with occlusal asymmetry, treated with the Herbst appliance.
Two young patients, one female and one male, with asymmetric occlusal deviation and extreme Angle Class II division 1 malocclusions were treated with the Herbst appliance after cessation of endochondral growth (union of the radius epiphysis). During treatment, computer tomographic (CT) scanning and orthopantomograms of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) revealed, as a result of bone modelling, asymmetrical new bone formation as a double contour on the distocranial part of the condyles. The treatment results were followed for more than 2 years and the new bone was found to be stable. (+info)
Neurology in ancient faces.
BACKGROUND: Clinical paleoneurology is almost non-existent, but recognition of neurological diseases in ancient people might be possible by scrutinising portraits apparently representing people as they appeared in life. METHODS: About 200 mummy portraits painted in colour at the beginning of the first millennium were examined. Thirty two skulls excavated at Hawara in the Fayum (northern Egypt), where most of the portraits were found were measured, and nine caliper measures on each side of the skulls were taken. The right/left ratios were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). One skull was subjected to 3D CT scanning and transilluminated. RESULTS: Two patients were found with progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome), three with deviations of the visual axes (tropia) and one with oval pupils (corectopia). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical paleoneurology is possible in the absence of a living nervous system. The patients probably had focal epilepsy, hemiplegic migraine, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (+info)
1999 Optident prize and William Houston Medal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.
This paper describes the clinical orthodontic treatment of three cases which were awarded the 1999 Optident prize and the William Houston Medal. (+info)