Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast.
Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself. (+info)
The abundance of cell cycle regulatory protein Cdc4p is controlled by interactions between its F box and Skp1p.
Posttranslational modification of a protein by ubiquitin usually results in rapid degradation of the ubiquitinated protein by the proteasome. The transfer of ubiquitin to substrate is a multistep process. Cdc4p is a component of a ubiquitin ligase that tethers the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34p to its substrates. Among the domains of Cdc4p that are crucial for function are the F-box, which links Cdc4p to Cdc53p through Skp1p, and the WD-40 repeats, which are required for binding the substrate for Cdc34p. In addition to Cdc4p, other F-box proteins, including Grr1p and Met30p, may similarly act together with Cdc53p and Skp1p to function as ubiquitin ligase complexes. Because the relative abundance of these complexes, known collectively as SCFs, is important for cell viability, we have sought evidence of mechanisms that modulate F-box protein regulation. Here we demonstrate that the abundance of Cdc4p is subject to control by a peptide segment that we term the R-motif (for "reduced abundance"). Furthermore, we show that binding of Skp1p to the F-box of Cdc4p inhibits R-motif-dependent degradation of Cdc4p. These results suggest a general model for control of SCF activities. (+info)
The Cdc6 protein is ubiquitinated in vivo for proteolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc6 protein is necessary for the formation of pre-replicative complexes that are required for firing DNA replication at origins at the beginning of S phase. Cdc6p protein levels oscillate during the cell cycle. In a normal cell cycle the presence of this protein is restricted to G1, partly because the CDC6 gene is transcribed only during G1 and partly because the Cdc6p protein is rapidly degraded at late G1/early S phase. We report here that the Cdc6p protein is degraded in a Cdc4-dependent manner, suggesting that phosphorylated Cdc6 is specifically recognized by the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis machinery. Indeed, we have found that Cdc6 is ubiquitinated in vivo and degraded by a Cdc4-dependent mechanism. Our data, together with previous observations regarding Cdc6 stability, suggest that under physiological conditions budding yeast cells degrade ubiquitinated Cdc6 every cell cycle at the beginning of S phase. (+info)
Rbx1, a component of the VHL tumor suppressor complex and SCF ubiquitin ligase.
The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene is mutated in most human kidney cancers. The VHL protein is part of a complex that includes Elongin B, Elongin C, and Cullin-2, proteins associated with transcriptional elongation and ubiquitination. Here it is shown that the endogenous VHL complex in rat liver also includes Rbx1, an evolutionarily conserved protein that contains a RING-H2 fingerlike motif and that interacts with Cullins. The yeast homolog of Rbx1 is a subunit and potent activator of the Cdc53-containing SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase required for ubiquitination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 and for the G1 to S cell cycle transition. These findings provide a further link between VHL and the cellular ubiquitination machinery. (+info)
Reconstitution of G1 cyclin ubiquitination with complexes containing SCFGrr1 and Rbx1.
Control of cyclin levels is critical for proper cell cycle regulation. In yeast, the stability of the G1 cyclin Cln1 is controlled by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. Here it is shown that this reaction can be reconstituted in vitro with an SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Phosphorylated Cln1 was ubiquitinated by SCF (Skp1-Cdc53-F-box protein) complexes containing the F-box protein Grr1, Rbx1, and the E2 Cdc34. Rbx1 promotes association of Cdc34 with Cdc53 and stimulates Cdc34 auto-ubiquitination in the context of Cdc53 or SCF complexes. Rbx1, which is also a component of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor complex, may define a previously unrecognized class of E3-associated proteins. (+info)
ROC1, a homolog of APC11, represents a family of cullin partners with an associated ubiquitin ligase activity.
We have identified two highly conserved RING finger proteins, ROC1 and ROC2, that are homologous to APC11, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. ROC1 and ROC2 commonly interact with all cullins while APC11 specifically interacts with APC2, a cullin-related APC subunit. YeastROC1 encodes an essential gene whose reduced expression resulted in multiple, elongated buds and accumulation of Sic1p and Cln2p. ROC1 and APC11 immunocomplexes can catalyze isopeptide ligations to form polyubiquitin chains in an E1- and E2-dependent manner. ROC1 mutations completely abolished their ligase activity without noticeable changes in associated proteins. Ubiquitination of phosphorylated I kappa B alpha can be catalyzed by the ROC1 immunocomplex in vitro. Hence, combinations of ROC/APC11 and cullin proteins proteins potentially constitute a wide variety of ubiquitin ligases. (+info)
Phosphorylation of the myosin-II light chain does not regulate the timing of cytokinesis in fission yeast.
Proper coordination of cytokinesis with chromosome separation during mitosis is crucial to ensure that each daughter cell inherits an equivalent set of chromosomes. It has been proposed that one mechanism by which this is achieved is through temporally regulated myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation (Satterwhite, L. L., and Pollard, T. D. (1992) Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 4, 43-52). A variety of evidence is consistent with this model. A direct test of the importance of RLC phosphorylation in vivo has been done only in Dictyostelium and Drosophila; phosphorylation of the RLC is essential in Drosophila (Jordan, P., and Karess, R. (1997) J. Cell Biol. 139, 1805-1819) but not essential in Dictyostelium (Ostrow, B. D., Chen, P., and Chisholm, R. L. (1994) J. Cell Biol. 127, 1945-1955). The Schizosaccharomyces pombe myosin light chain Cdc4p is essential for cytokinesis, but it was unknown whether phosphorylation played a role in its regulation. Here we show that the S. pombe myosin light chain Cdc4p is phosphorylated in vivo on either serine 2 or 6 but not both. Mutation of either or both of these sites to alanine did not effect the ability of Cdc4p to bind the type II myosin Myo2p, and cells expressing only these mutated versions of Cdc4p grew and divided normally. Similarly, mutation of Ser-2, Ser-6, or both residues to aspartic acid did not affect growth or division of cells. Thus we conclude that phosphorylation of Cdc4p is not essential in vivo for the function of the protein. (+info)
Identification of cold-sensitive mutations in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe actin locus.
In recent years, the actin cytoskeleton in Schizosaccharomyces pombe has become the subject of intense scrutiny. However, to date, only a single actin mutation has been identified. Described here is the isolation and characterization of four new cold-sensitive actin mutations. Sequence analysis of the mutant actin genes indicated that each of these mutations caused alterations in single amino acids that are conserved in all actin sequences. These mutants differ in their phenotypes. One of these mutations (act1-48) was identified as an extragenic suppressor of a mutation in the cdc4 gene, which is required for actin ring formation and cytokinesis. Interestingly, when act1-48 mutant cells were shifted to the restrictive temperature, actin patches were not detected but the actin ring formation and stability was unaffected. The three other mutations, act1-16, act1-32 and act1-67, primarily affected the actin ring formation or stability while F-actin patches did not seem to be substantially different in appearance. Given that the ultrastructural architectures of F-actin patches and the F-actin ring are presently unclear, these mutations, which affect one structure or the other, should be useful for future studies on the role of actin itself in the function of these F-actin-containing structures in S. pombe. (+info)