Blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome (Brueghel's syndrome). A variant of adult-onset torsion dystonia?
Thirty-nine patients with the idiopathic blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome are described. All presented in adult life, usually in the sixth decade; women were more commonly affected than men. Thirteen had blepharospasm alone, nine had oromandibular dystonia alone, and 17 had both. Torticollis or dystonic writer's camp preceded the syndrome in two patients. Eight other patients developed toritocollis, dystonic posturing of the arms, or involvement of respiratory muscles. No cause or hereditary basis for the illness were discovered. The evidence to indicate that this syndrome is due to an abnormality of extrapyramidal function, and that it is another example of adult-onset focal dystonia akin to spasmodic torticollis and dystonic writer's cramp, is discussed. (+info
Multiple eyelid cysts resembling apocrine hidrocystomas in three Persian cats and one Himalayan cat.
Multiple eyelid cysts were evaluated and treated in four cats. Surgical removal of the cysts was performed in two cats. Histopathologic examination revealed multilocular cystic structures of various size. The cysts were lined by cuboidal to columnar cells with papillary or cystic projections into the cyst lumen. Periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant granules were seen within the apical cytoplasm of many of the cells. The eyelid masses in these cats resembled apocrine hidrocystomas in human beings, both clinically and on histopathologic examination. (+info
Incidence of trichiasis in a cohort of women with and without scarring.
BACKGROUND: Blindness from trachoma is a significant problem for many underdeveloped countries. While active trachoma is common in children, trichiasis, the potentially blinding sequella, develops in adulthood and affects mainly women. Little is known about factors associated with the development of trichiasis. METHODS: The 7-year incidence of trichiasis and its association with ocular chlamydia infection was examined in a cohort of women from a hyperendemic area. A total of 4,932 women 18 years and older, living in 11 villages in Central Tanzania, were examined in 1989. A follow-up examination in 1996 was performed on all women with scars living in six of the 11 villages and on a random sample of women without scars from the same villages. Trachoma was graded clinically, chlamydia infection was ascertained at follow-up using polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA). RESULTS: A total 523 of the women with scars and 503 of the women without scars were re-examined. Forty-eight of the women with scars (incidence, 9.2%) and three of the women without scars (0.6%) developed trichiasis in the 7-year period. Prevalence of chlamydia infection was significantly higher in the group with scars (11.7% versus 7.1%). Trichiasis cases were more likely to be older, and to have chlamydia infection at follow-up odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 2.5 (1.1-5.7). CONCLUSION: The 7-year incidence rate in the population with scars was high, over 1% per year. Ocular chlamydia infection was more common in the group with scars at baseline and was also associated with being a trichiasis case, suggesting the importance of potentially long-term chlamydia infection in the progression to trichiasis. Antibiotic distribution programmes for trachoma control should include women with scars. (+info
Phakomatous choristoma of the eyelid.
This article describes the first report of phakomatous choristoma of the eyelid in Korea. A six-month-old boy underwent excision of a congenital inferonasal orbital mass arising from the left lower lid. A dermoid cyst was suspected, however a diagnosis of phakomatous choristoma was made following conventional histology. An immunohistochemical study of this rare benign congenital tumor was conducted. The cuboidal epithelial cells comprising this choristoma showed strongly positive cytoplasmic staining with S-100 protein and vimentin. They also showed focally positive staining with a neuron-specific enolase, while they showed no immunoreactivity to cytokeratin or epithelial membrane antigen. The results of the immunohistochemical study support the conclusion that this tumor is of lenticular anlage origin. (+info
Myiasis is most prevalent in Mexico, central and south America, tropical Africa, and the southwestern United States. Although dermal myiasis is rare in most of the United States, it is a disorder that may be seen in international travelers. In the United States, external myiasis is usually caused by the cattle botfly. We report here a case of ophthalmomyiasis involving the left upper eyelid of a child. We examined a six-year-old boy who presented to the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI) in September 1998. He complained of persistent swelling of his left upper eyelid for the previous ten days. The edema and erythema were unresponsive to warm compresses and oral antibiotics. Ocular examination revealed a mild preseptal cellulitis of the left upper eyelid with a small draining fistula. On slit-lamp examination, we found one larva protruding intermittently from the fistula site. The larva was extracted with forceps, wrapped in a moist towel and sent in a jar to the parasitology laboratory. The specimen was identified as a Cuterebra larva by a parasitologist at the Harvard School of Public Health. One week later, the patient's eyelid edema and erythema had completely resolved. (+info
Regulation of MMP-9 activity in human tear fluid and corneal epithelial culture supernatant.
PURPOSE: To evaluate human corneal epithelial culture supernatant and tear fluid for the presence of activators and inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, respectively, and to evaluate the effect of MMP-3 on the activation of MMP-9 in these specimens. METHODS: Unstimulated tear fluid was collected from patients with ocular rosacea and normal control subjects. Levels of MMP-9, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and/or immunoblot analysis. Supernatants from primary human corneal epithelial cultures and human tear fluid were incubated with MMP-3. Cultured epithelial cells and their supernatants were also treated with doxycycline before MMP-3 was added. Gelatin zymography was used to identify activated 82-kDa MMP-9. MMP-9 activity was assessed with a commercial MMP-9 activity assay system. RESULTS: MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were detected at significantly higher concentrations in rosacea-affected than in normal tear fluids. MMP-3 was detected exclusively in the tear fluid of patients with ocular rosacea who had corneal epithelial disease. Treatment of the supernatant and tear fluid with MMP-3 resulted in two bands with molecular weights of 92 kDa and 82 kDa, representing pro-MMP-9 and activated MMP-9, respectively. Doxycycline added to the conditioned media did not affect activation of MMP-9 by MMP-3. However, 24-hour treatment of corneal epithelial cultures with doxycycline resulted in a lower concentration and activity of MMP-9 in their supernatants. CONCLUSIONS: MMP-9 and TIMP-1 are produced by the human corneal epithelium and are present in tear fluid. MMP-3 alone is sufficient to activate MMP-9 on the ocular surface. Doxycycline does not directly inhibit this activation by MMP-3, but it decreases MMP-9 activity when added to corneal epithelial cultures. (+info
Haemorrhage and risk factors associated with retrobulbar/peribulbar block: a prospective study in 1383 patients.
Patients undergoing intraocular surgery are elderly and may have disease or be receiving medication which increases the risk of haemorrhage. We interviewed 1383 consecutive patients scheduled for eye surgery requiring retrobulbar/peribulbar block about their use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral steroids and warfarin. A history of diabetes mellitus and globe axial length was noted. Medial peribulbar and inferolateral retrobulbar blocks were performed by three specialists and six doctors in training. The ensuing haemorrhages were graded as follows: 1 = spot ecchymosis; 2 = lid ecchymosis involving half of the lid surface area or less; 3 = lid ecchymosis all around the eye, no increase in intraocular pressure; 4 = retrobulbar haemorrhage with increased intraocular pressure. Acetylsalicylic acid was taken by 482 (35%) patients, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by 260 (19%) and warfarin by 76 (5.5%). Lid haemorrhages (grades 1-3) were observed in 55 patients (4.0%); in 33 of these patients the haemorrhages were spotlike (grade 1). No grade 4 haemorrhages occurred. The preoperative use of acetylsalicylic acid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or warfarin, whether or not they had been discontinued, did not predispose to haemorrhage associated with retrobulbar/peribulbar block. (+info
Histoplasmosis of the eyelids--a case report.
Systemic histoplasmosis manifesting as an ulcerative eyelid lesion is rare. We describe a successfully treated case of histoplasmosis who presented with an eroding ulcer in the lid. (+info