Detection of human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 in pubic and perianal hair from patients with genital warts.
Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 are of clinical importance due to their role in the development of anogenital warts. A pilot study was performed to investigate whether DNAs from HPV types 6 and 11 are present in hairs plucked from the pubic and perianal regions and eyebrows of patients with genital warts at present and patients with a recent history of genital warts. Genital HPV DNA was detected in 9 of 25 (36%) pubic hair samples and in 11 of 22 (50%) perianal hair samples by the CPI/CPIIg PCR. After sequencing of 17 of 20 samples, HPV type 6 or 11 was detected in 6 of 25 (24%) hair samples from the pubis and 8 of 22 (36%) hair samples from the perianal region. These types were not detected in plucked eyebrow hairs. In contrast, the HPV types associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis were detected in similar proportions (62%) in both samples of pubic and eyebrow hairs. Moreover, HPV type 6 and 11 DNAs were detected in pubic hairs plucked from two patients who had been successfully treated and who did not show any lesion at the time of hair collection; this finding is an argument that HPV DNA may persist in this region. The presence of genital HPV types in plucked pubic and perianal hair suggests that there is an endogenous reservoir for HPV which may play a role in the recurrences of genital warts. (+info)
Body piercing in the accident and emergency department.
Recently an increasing number of patients with complications related to pierced body jewellery have been seen. Often removal of the jewellery is indicated. Removal of these items may also be required for radiological purposes. If the doctor is familiar with the opening mechanism of the item, removal is not usually difficult. Uninformed attempts at removal may cause unnecessary trauma and distress. In a survey of 28 accident and emergency doctors, only six were able accurately to describe the opening mechanisms of all three commonly used types of jewellery. Descriptions of the types of jewellery currently used are not available in the medical literature. The aim of this article is to familiarize doctors with the types of jewellery used, describe their opening mechanisms, and suggest techniques for their removal. The complications of body piercing and the indications for the removal of body jewellery are also outlined. (+info)
Keratin 17 expression in the hard epithelial context of the hair and nail, and its relevance for the pachyonychia congenita phenotype.
The hard-keratin-containing portion of the murine hair shaft displays a positive immunoreactivity with an antibody against the soft epithelial keratin, K17. The K17-expressing cell population is located in the medulla compartment of the hair. Consistent with this observation, K17-containing cells also occur in the presumptive medulla precursor cells located in the hair follicle matrix. Western blot analysis of hair extracts prepared from a number of mouse strains confirms this observation and suggests that K17 expression in the hair shaft is a general trait in this species. The expression of K17 in human hair extracts is restricted to eyebrow and facial hair samples. These are the major sites for the occurrence of the pili torti (twisted hair) phenotype in the type 2 (Jackson-Lawler) form of pachyonychia congenita, previously shown to arise from inherited K17 mutations. Given that all forms of pachyonychia congenita show an involvement of the nail, we compared the expression of the two other genes mutated in pachyonychia congenita diseases, K6 and K16, with that of K17 in human nail. All three keratins are abundantly expressed within the nail bed epithelium, whereas K17 protein is expressed in the nail matrix, which contains the epithelial cell precursors for the nail plate. Our data suggest a role for K17 in the formation and maintenance of various skin appendages and directly support the concept that pachyonychia congenita is a disease of the nail bed. (+info)
Association between epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus DNA in plucked eyebrow hair and solar keratoses.
Epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus DNA has been demonstrated in squamous cell carcinomas and plucked hair from immunocompetent patients and renal transplant recipients. This study investigated the association between infection with epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus, identified by the detection of viral DNA in plucked eyebrow hairs, and solar keratoses. These lesions are strongly predictive of squamous cell carcinoma. In a cross-sectional study 518 individuals were enrolled from a randomly selected sample of a subtropical Australian community. Epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus DNA in eyebrow hair was detected using a nested polymerase chain reaction specific for epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus types. Epidermo dysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus DNA was present in 121 (49%) of 245 men and 116 (44%) of 262 women. There was a strongly significant increase in epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus infection with age (p < 0.00001), with prevalences of 29% in the 25-39 y age group, 42% at 40-59 y and 65% in the 60-79 y age group. Among men there was a strong association between epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus and solar keratoses with an odds ratio, adjusted for age, skin color, and occupational sun exposure, of 3.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.77-6.53). No such association was found among women [odds ratio 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.59-1.77, after adjustment for the same factors)]. Differences in occupational sun exposure and smoking histories could not explain these apparently different associations between epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus infection and solar keratoses in men and women. In conclusion, epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus infection is associated with solar keratoses in men suggesting that epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus infection, in conjunction with sex specific factors (like androgens), may be involved in neoplastic changes of keratinocytes. (+info)
Supraorbital eyebrow approach to skull base lesions.
We report our experience with a supraorbital eyebrow minicraniotomy. This technique is suitable to lesions situated in the region of the anterior fossa, suprasellar cisterns, parasellar region and Sylvian fissure. A 50 mm incision in the eyebrow and a supraorbital minicraniotomy is performed. Sixteem patients harboring different lesions were operated on with good postoperative and cosmetic results. We conclude that this approach is safe and useful in selected cases. (+info)
THE DE LANGE SYNDROME: REPORT OF THREE CASES.
Three cases of de Lange's syndrome are described. This condition is characterized by generally severe mental retardation, reduced stature, mild microcephaly, hypertrichosis, various anomalies of hands and feet, and a peculiar facies. The most outstanding features of the latter are the low forehead, profuse, generally confluent eyebrows, abundant long eyelashes, eyes that frequently slant downwards and outwards in antimongoloid fashion, pug nose with prominent anteverted nostrils, increased distance between nose and vermilion border of upper lip, slight reduction in size of chin, and often abnormally low-placed ears. The etiology of de Lange's syndrome is at present unknown. (+info)
Presence of human papillomavirus DNA in plucked eyebrow hairs is associated with a history of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
A role for cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) has been proposed in the development of skin cancer. Well-designed epidemiologic studies to demonstrate an association between HPV infection and skin cancer are extremely rare. To identify HPV infection as a potential risk factor, we investigated the association between the presence of HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs and a history of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. A case-control study was designed consisting of 155 immunocompetent individuals with a history of squamous cell carcinoma and 371 controls without skin cancer. DNA extracted from plucked eyebrow hairs collected from the study population was analyzed with a cutaneous HPV subgroup polymerase chain reaction and newly designed HPV type specific polymerase chain reactions for HPV 2, 5, 8, 15, 16, 20, 24, and 38. HPV DNA was detected in 63.1% of the total study population. The presence of HPV DNA was associated with age (p=0.0002) and male sex (p=0.02), but not with sun exposure, skin type, and smoking. After adjustment for age and sex, the presence of HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs was associated with a history of squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.1; 2.7). HPV type specific analysis revealed that no HPV type stood out. The high-risk mucosal type HPV 16 and the skin wart type HPV 2 were rarely found in this study (<0.2%). The positive association found between the presence of HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs and a history of squamous cell carcinoma warrants further research into the role that HPV infection plays in the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. (+info)
Endoscopic aesthetic facial surgery: technique and results.
The endoscopic approach to forehead and midface lifting has become popular method of face rejuvenation with minimal incisions. We have performed 67 endoscopic facelift procedures in the last four years. Forehead lifting technique included five small scalp incisions, wide subperiosteal elevation, endoscopic myotomy and forehead tissue fixation with srews, superficial temporal fascia (STF) suture to deep temporal fascia (DTF). Midface lifting technique included temporal 2.5 cm and 1.5 cm vertical intraoral incision, midface subperiosteal undermining and midface elevation with cable sutures Bichat's fat to DTF. Age mediana of patients who underwent endoscopic front lift was 46, patients who had endoscopic front lift and midface lift procedure age mediana was 40. Postoperative complication rate was 7.5% and included frontal branch weakness (n=2), hematoma (n=1), infraorbital nerve paresthesia (n=1) and asymmetrical smile (n=1). The main question is the quality of the results. We have reviewed 49 patients who were followed 6 months or more. Preoperative and postoperative life-size photographs were analyzed. The mean elevation mediana at medial canthus was 2.2 mm, at medial limbus 2.3 mm, at lateral limbus 2.5 mm, at lateral canthus 2.9 mm. Midface - lift effect resulted cheek elevation from 1.07 till 4.71 mm lip corner elevation 1.03 mm to 3.27 mm. We observed cheek elevation, improving nasolabial line, increasing volume of malar region, elevating lip angles in patients after endoscopic midface lift. We have found that important advantage of subperiosteal midface lift, when performed in conjunction with endoscopic brow lift, is its ability to move the cosmetic eye unit, proportionally, leading to a harmonious facial appearance. Endoscopic facelift is effective procedure for face rejuvenation especially for eyebrows and cheek elevation. (+info)