Von Hippel's disease in association with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis.
Ten members of a large family who showed manifestations of either von Hippel-Lindau disease or von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis were examined. Three of 10 members were found to have retinal angiomas which had not been present on fundus examination 3 years previously. These angiomas were associated with ocular and systemic signs of neurofibromatosis. These cases show overlapping manifestations of different phakomatoses and provide support for the concept of a common aetiology for these diseases. (+info)
Ocular adnexal lymphoma-comparison of MALT lymphoma with other histological types.
AIMS: To correlate histological features of ocular adnexal lymphoma using the revised European American lymphoma classification (REAL), with stage of disease at presentation, treatment modalities, and patient outcome. MALT lymphoma defines an extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma as outlined in the REAL classification. Comparison groups of patients included those with primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma versus primary ocular adnexal lymphomas of other types, MALT lymphoma versus non-MALT lymphomas (primary and secondary), and primary ocular adnexal lymphoma (MALT lymphomas and other types) versus secondary ocular adnexal lymphomas. METHODS: A retrospective review of the National Ophthalmic Pathology Laboratory records identified 20 cases of ocular adnexal lymphoma over a 10 year period which were reclassified using appropriate immunohistochemical stains. Patients' medical records were examined for data including stage of the disease at presentation, mode of treatment, and patient outcome. RESULTS: Among the 20 cases identified 14 had primary ocular adnexal lymphomas. 10 of the primary lymphomas had histological features of MALT lymphoma. One case was a primary ocular adnexal T cell lymphoma, one a follicular centre, follicular B cell lymphoma, and two were large cell B cell lymphomas. Six cases had systemic disease, four large B cell, one follicular centre, follicular B cell, and one mantle cell. A significantly higher proportion of patients with MALT lymphomas had early disease (p = 0.005), initially required local treatment (p = 0.005) and were alive at last follow up (p = 0.001) than those without. Two patients with MALT lymphoma had recurrence of lymphoma which responded to further treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphomas present with localised disease requiring local treatment and have a better outcome compared with patients with other types. As a small percentage of these tumours recur, patients should be followed up indefinitely. (+info)
The p53 tumor suppressor gene of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica: cloning of exons 4-11 and mutations in exons 5-8 in ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal sarcomas.
Inactivating p53 mutations are found in many ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin tumors. We examined 12 UVR-induced corneal tumors of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica for mutations in exons 5-8 of p53 and compared their mutational spectrum with that of UVR-induced skin tumors of other species. First we cloned and characterized a cDNA extending from the middle of exon 4 through exon 11 of the Monodelphis p53 gene. Based on the sequence information obtained, primers were designed to amplify introns 4-9 of the gene; intron primers to amplify individually exons 5-8 were subsequently developed. 'Cold' single strand conformational polymorphism analysis followed by reamplification of DNA with altered mobility and cycle sequencing revealed single p53 mutations in four of 12 tumors (33%), including one mutation in exon 5, two identical mutations in exon 7 and one mutation in exon 8. All mutations were at dipyrimidine sites and occurred on the non-transcribed strand. Three of the four were hallmark UVR-induced C-->T alterations. Three of the mutations were found at sites corresponding to human codons 248 and 273, which are mutational hotspots in human and murine UVR-induced squamous cell carcinomas. Our findings suggest that UVR-induced corneal sarcomas in Monodelphis will be valuable in studying mechanisms of p53 mutation in UVR-induced tumors. (+info)
Tumor vascularity and hematogenous metastasis in experimental murine intraocular melanoma.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that primary tumor vascularity in a murine model of intraocular melanoma positively correlates with the development and hematogenous spread of metastasis. METHODS: Forty 12-week-old C57BL6 mice were inoculated in either the anterior chamber (AC) or posterior compartment (PC) of 1 eye with 5 x 10(5) cells/microL of Queens tissue culture melanoma cells. The inoculated eye was enucleated at 2 weeks; the mice were sacrificed at 4 weeks postinoculation, and necropsies were performed. The enucleated eyes were examined for histologic and ultrastructural features, including relationship of tumor cells to tumor vascular channels, vascular pattern, and mean vascular density. RESULTS: Melanoma grew and was confined to the eye in 12 of 20 AC eyes and 10 of 20 PC eyes. Histologic and electron microscopic examination showed tumor invasion into vascular channels. Five of 12 AC tumors (42%) and 8 of 10 PC tumors (80%) metastasized. All of the AC tumors, but none of the PC tumors, that distantly metastasized also metastasized to ipsilateral cervical lymph nodes (P = .00535). There was no statistically significant difference of vascular pattern between the melanomas that did and did not metastasize to lungs in the PC group (P = .24), although there was a significant difference in the AC group (P = .02). Tumors with high-grade vascular patterns were more likely to metastasize than tumors with low-grade vascular patterns in the AC group. The mean vascular density positively correlated with the presence and number of metastases in both groups (P = .0000 and P < .001, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference of vascular pattern and mean vascular density for AC versus PC melanoma (P = .97). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of metastasis in this murine intraocular melanoma model positively correlates with primary tumor vascularity. The melanoma metastasizes via invasion of tumor vascular channels. AC melanoma also metastasizes through regional lymphatics. (+info)
Intravitreal chemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent intraocular lymphoma.
AIM: To develop and assess a protocol for the treatment of intraocular lymphoma by intravitreal injection of methotrexate and thiotepa. METHODS: A patient with intraocular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma which recurred after radiotherapy and repeated systemic chemotherapeutic regimens underwent repeated intravitreal injections of methotrexate and thiotepa. The patient was closely monitored by cytology, anterior chamber flare measurements, IL-10 and IL-6 levels. Methotrexate drug clearance studies were performed on vitreous samples taken before each injection. RESULTS: Complete tumour clearance was achieved by the third week of therapy. IL-10 and IL-6 levels quickly dropped to barely detectable levels as the tumour was cleared from the eye. Flare measurements decreased from 500 to 15 photons/s over the same time. A plot of the methotrexate levels over time revealed a first order kinetic rate of elimination with an effective tumoricidal intravitreal dose persisting for 5 days after injection. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal chemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent intraocular lymphoma appears effective in prolonging local remission of ocular disease even in the presence of an aggressively growing tumour. A single intravitreal injection of methotrexate can lead to a prolonged tumoricidal concentration lasting for a longer period than that achieved by systemic administration. (+info)
p53 protects against skin cancer induction by UV-B radiation.
To assess the role of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in skin carcinogenesis by UV radiation, mice constitutively lacking one or both copies of the functional p53 gene were compared to wild-type mice for their susceptibility to UV carcinogenesis. Heterozygous mice showed greatly increased susceptibility to skin cancer induction, and homozygous p53 knockout mice were even more susceptible. Accelerated tumor development in the heterozygotes was not associated with loss of the remaining wild-type allele of p53, as reported for tumors induced by other carcinogens, but in many cases was associated with UV-induced mutations in p53. Tumors arose on the ears and dorsal skin of mice of all three genotypes, and homozygous knockout mice also developed ocular tumors, mainly melanomas. Skin tumors in the p53 knockout mice were predominately squamous cell carcinomas and were associated with premalignant lesions resembling actinic keratoses, whereas those in the heterozygous and wild-type mice were mainly sarcomas. These results demonstrate the importance of p53 in protecting against UV-induced cancers, particularly in the eye and epidermis. (+info)
Paucity of leukemic progenitor cells in the bone marrow of pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with an isolated extramedullary first relapse.
Isolated extramedullary relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may be accompanied by occult bone marrow disease. We used a highly sensitive assay to quantify leukemic progenitor cells (LPCs) in the bone marrow of such patients. Multiparameter flow cytometry and blast colony assays were used to detect LPCs in the bone marrow of 31 pediatric B-lineage ALL patients with an isolated extramedullary first relapse. Sites of relapse were central nervous system (22 patients), testes (7 patients), and eye (2 patients). Bone marrow (BM) LPC counts ranged from 0/10(6) mononuclear cells (MNCs) to 356/10(6) MNCs (mean +/- SE, 27.8+/-13.1/10(6) MNCs). LPCs were undetectable in 19 patients (61%). The BM LPC burden at the time of extramedullary relapse was similar, regardless of site (Wilcoxon P = 0.77) or time of relapse (Wilcoxon P = 0.80). Compared with higher risk, standard risk at initial diagnosis showed a trend for increased BM LPC burden (mean +/- SE, 44.6+/-17.1 versus 7.5+/-3.3; Wilcoxon P = 0.22). After successful postrelapse induction chemotherapy, LPC counts in 21 evaluated patients ranged from 0/10(6) to 175/10(6) MNCs (mean +/- SE, 15.9+/-9.6/10(6) MNCs). By comparison, LPC burden was higher after successful induction chemotherapy among children with an early BM relapse (range, 0 to 3262/ 106 MNC; mean +/- SE, 166+/-107; Wilcoxon P = 0.11). Thus, not all patients with an extramedullary relapse have occult systemic failure with substantial involvement of the bone marrow, and after reinduction therapy, LPC counts were lower in these patients than in patients treated for an overt BM first relapse. (+info)
Seasonal variations in the diagnosis of childhood cancer in the United States.
Seasonal trends in month of diagnosis have been reported for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). This seasonal variation has been suggested to represent an underlying viral aetiology for these malignancies. Some studies have shown the highest frequency of diagnoses in the summer months, although this has been inconsistent. Data from the Children's Cancer Group and the Pediatric Oncology Group were analysed for seasonal incidence patterns. A total of 20,949 incident cancer cases diagnosed in the USA from 1 January 1989 through 31 December 1991 were available for analyses. Diagnosis-specific malignancies available for evaluation included ALL, acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), Hodgkin's disease, NHL, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma, Wilms' tumour, retinoblastoma, Ewings' sarcoma, central nervous system (CNS) tumours and hepatoblastoma. Overall, there was no statistically significant seasonal variation in the month of diagnosis for all childhood cancers combined. For diagnosis-specific malignancies, there was a statistically significant seasonal variation for ALL (P = 0.01; peak in summer), rhabdomyosarcoma (P = 0.03; spring/summer) and hepatoblastoma (P = 0.01; summer); there was no seasonal variation in the diagnosis of NHL. When cases were restricted to latitudes greater than 40 degrees ('north'), seasonal patterns were apparent only for ALL and hepatoblastoma. Notably, 33% of hepatoblastoma cases were diagnosed in the summer months. In contrast, for latitudes less than 40 degrees ('south'), only CNS tumours demonstrated a seasonal pattern (P = 0.002; winter). Although these data provide modest support for a summer peak in the diagnosis of childhood ALL, any underlying biological mechanisms that account for these seasonal patterns are likely complex and in need of more definitive studies. (+info)