(1/121) Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities in adults with falciparum malaria.

We studied 424 adults with falciparum malaria admitted over 28 months. They were divided into three groups: cerebral malaria (n = 214); severe non-cerebral malaria (n = 58); and uncomplicated malaria (n = 152). Fundus examination was done daily from admission to discharge, and weekly thereafter in those with persistent changes. All patients were treated by a protocol based on WHO guidelines. Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities were: retinal haemorrhages, 40 (9.43%) (25 cerebral malaria, 10 severe non-cerebral and five uncomplicated malaria); papilloedema, 17 (7.94%) cerebral malaria and two uncomplicated malaria; blurring of disc margins, 25 (11.68%) cerebral and seven non-cerebral; retinal oedema, six (2.80%) cerebral and five non-cerebral malaria; disc pallor, five patients all with cerebral malaria; vitreous haemorrhage and hard exudate in one patient each, both cerebral malaria. Retinal haemorrhage was associated with cerebral malaria and severe non-cerebral malaria, especially with severe anaemia (p < 0.001), as compared to uncomplicated malaria (p < 0.01). The association of papilloedema and cerebral malaria was highly significant compared to severe non-cerebral malaria (p < 0.001). None of these findings was associated with statistically significant mortality, except disc pallor in cerebral malaria (p < 0.05).  (+info)

(2/121) First report of Thelazia sp. from a captive Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) in Japan.

Nematodes of the genus Thelazia were recovered from the cornea and inferior conjunctival sac of an immature Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana). The bird hatched and reared at the Toyooka Oriental White Stork Breeding Center, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, but died of chlamydiosis. There were neither gross nor histopathologic ophthalmic lesions. The eye worm from a bird is believed to be first reported in Japan. As regarding reintroduction plan for the Oriental white stork, control measures for prevent further infection with the eye worm will be needed.  (+info)

(3/121) Natural mass infection by heterophyid metacercariae in aquacultured Japanese eel in Taiwan.

A natural mass infection of heterophyid metacercariae in aquacultured Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in Taiwan was observed. Of the 28,000 adult eels in 2 ponds, about 25,000 (90%) showed swollen, cloudy and white eyes. Although morbidity was about 90%, there was no mortality among the affected eels. Histopathological sections showed edema and hemorrhage of the eye. Numerous metacercariae were observed in the muscle tissues around the eyeball, the subcutaneous tissue and even in the cartilage. Of the 6 eels digested with artificial gastric juice, all were found to contain metacercariae in their muscle tissues. The average number of metacercariae recovered from the 6 eels was 1219, with a range of 50 to 3762. These metacercariae, when fed orally to immunodeficient (scid) mice, developed into adult worms which were identified as Procerovum cheni Hsu 1950. The naturally infected eels were transferred to a new pond without snails and their eye lesions were not apparent anymore after 2 wk. In a follow-up investigation, 19 of 20 apparently healthy eels in a nearby aquaculture farm were found to harbour metacercariae in their muscles. However, the number of the metacercariae ranged from 1 to 14, with an average of 4.21. This is the first report of heterophyid metacercariae causing mass morbidity in aquacultured eels.  (+info)

(4/121) Aetiological study of the presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in the Netherlands.

AIM: To investigate whether presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in the Netherlands is caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and whether other risk factors might play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. METHODS: 23 patients were clinically diagnosed as having presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome based on the following criteria: peripapillary atrophy, punched out lesions, a macular disciform lesion or scar in one eye without vitritis. As controls, 66 sex and age matched healthy volunteers were used. Serum samples from both patients and controls were tested for the presence of antibodies against H capsulatum, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara canis et cati, Ascaris sp, and for the presence of antigens of Cryptococcus neoformans. Serum samples were also tested for the presence of autoantibodies against retinal or choroidal proteins. To investigate other risk factors, patients and controls were asked to fill in a health and travel related questionnaire. Ten patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were used as a disease control group. RESULTS: None of the patients with presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome or controls had circulating antibodies directed against H capsulatum. No risk factors could be identified and no indications for autoimmunity and no evidence for the role of the other infectious agents could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: In a Dutch group of patients fulfilling the criteria of a disease currently named presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, no risk factors or relation with the fungus H capsulatum could be detected.  (+info)

(5/121) New animal model for human ocular toxocariasis: ophthalmoscopic observation.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although human ocular toxocariasis causes severe vision defect, little is known about its aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment. To develop a new animal model for human ocular toxocariasis, ophthalmological findings of fundi in Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, and BALB/c mice were investigated following infection with Toxocara canis. METHODS: Using an ophthalmoscope, which was specifically developed to observe the fundi of small animals, ocular changes of fundi of 20 gerbils and 11 mice were monitored after oral infection with embryonated eggs of T canis. RESULTS: Vitreous, choroidal, and retinal haemorrhages were consistently observed in Mongolian gerbils, but rarely in mice. Severe exudative lesions and vasculitis were often present in gerbils but not in mice. Migrating larvae were also frequently observed in gerbils. CONCLUSION: Mongolian gerbils are more appropriate animal model for human ocular toxocariasis than previously used experimental animal such as mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and monkeys because of its high susceptibility of ocular infection.  (+info)

(6/121) Ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador: case report and morphometric study of the larva of Linguatula serrata.

Linguatula serrata is a pentastomid, a cosmopolitan parasite belonging to the Phylum Pentastomida. Humans may act as an intermediate or accidental definitive host of this parasite, manifesting the nasopharyngeal or visceral form, with the latter having been described more frequently. The occurrence of ocular linguatuliasis is extremely rare, but it has been reported in the United States and Israel. The objective of the present paper was to report the first case of ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador and to extend the morphologic study of L. serrata by morphometric analysis. The patient studied was a 34-year old woman from Guayaquil, Ecuador who complained of ocular pain with conjunctivitis and visual difficulties of two-months duration. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a mobile body in the anterior chamber of the eye. The mobile body was surgically removed. The specimen was fixed in alcohol, cleared using the technique of Loos, stained with acetic carmine, and mounted on balsam between a slide and a coverslip. It was observed with stereoscopic and common light microscopes in combination with an automatic system for image analysis and processing. The morphologic and morphometric characteristics corresponded to the third-instar larval form of L. serrata. To our knowledge, ocular linguatuliasis has not been previously described in South America, with this being the first report for Ecuador and South America. The present study shows that computer morphometry can adequately contribute both to the morphologic study and to the systematic classification of Pentastomids, and L. serrata in particular.  (+info)

(7/121) A case of presumed ocular toxocariasis in a 28-year old woman.

This is a case of presumed ocular toxocariasis in a 28-year old woman complaining of a sudden onset of nasal side field defect of the right eye. The patient had been suffering from uveitis for ten months. Fundoscopic examination of the right eye showed a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Furthermore, a retinochoroidal granulomatous lesion was observed nearby the tear site. Scleral buckling, cryotherapy, and gas injection(SF6, pure gas, 0.7 cc) were conducted. Mebendazole was prescribed for one month at 25 mg/kg per body weight daily. Even though the interventions resulted in the recovery of the field defect, anti-Toxocara IgG and IgE titer levels did not decrease when checked three months after the treatment ended. This is the first confirmed serological ocular toxocariasis case in Korea. Uveitis may be a clinical presentation prior to retinal detachment of a person with toxocariasis.  (+info)

(8/121) Palpebral myiasis.

Myiasis is most prevalent in Mexico, central and south America, tropical Africa, and the southwestern United States. Although dermal myiasis is rare in most of the United States, it is a disorder that may be seen in international travelers. In the United States, external myiasis is usually caused by the cattle botfly. We report here a case of ophthalmomyiasis involving the left upper eyelid of a child. We examined a six-year-old boy who presented to the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI) in September 1998. He complained of persistent swelling of his left upper eyelid for the previous ten days. The edema and erythema were unresponsive to warm compresses and oral antibiotics. Ocular examination revealed a mild preseptal cellulitis of the left upper eyelid with a small draining fistula. On slit-lamp examination, we found one larva protruding intermittently from the fistula site. The larva was extracted with forceps, wrapped in a moist towel and sent in a jar to the parasitology laboratory. The specimen was identified as a Cuterebra larva by a parasitologist at the Harvard School of Public Health. One week later, the patient's eyelid edema and erythema had completely resolved.  (+info)