(1/96) Thin-plate spline analysis of treatment effects of rapid maxillary expansion and face mask therapy in early Class III malocclusions.
An effective morphometric method (thin-plate spline analysis) was applied to evaluate shape changes in the craniofacial configuration of a sample of 23 children with Class III malocclusions in the early mixed dentition treated with rapid maxillary expansion and face mask therapy, and compared with a sample of 17 children with untreated Class III malocclusions. Significant treatment-induced changes involved both the maxilla and the mandible. Major deformations consisted of forward displacement of the maxillary complex from the pterygoid region and of anterior morphogenetic rotation of the mandible, due to a significant upward and forward direction of growth of the mandibular condyle. Significant differences in size changes due to reduced increments in mandibular dimensions were associated with significant shape changes in the treated group. (+info)
(2/96) Long-term effect of the chincap on hard and soft tissues.
The short- and long-term effects of the chincap used in combination with a removable appliance to procline upper incisors were analysed cephalometrically in 23 patients with Class III malocclusions. The overall changes were compared with growth changes in a closely matched control sample of untreated Class III patients. There was no evidence that the chincap retarded growth of the mandible. During treatment, there was an increase in mandibular length and facial height. The lower incisors retroclined and the upper incisors proclined. The incisor relationship was corrected. Soft tissue changes included an increase in nasolabial angle and improvement in soft-tissue profile, including the nose. Skeletal post-treatment changes included further mandibular growth associated with an increase in angle SNB and Wits measurement. Facial height also increased significantly. The Class I overjet was maintained, although slightly diminished. The soft tissue nose, upper and lower lip, and chin moved anteriorly, and the nasal tip and chin moved inferiorly. At the end of the study period there were no significant skeletal or soft tissue differences between the treated and control groups. The only significant contrasts were in the overjet and the overbite. Chincap therapy combined with an upper removable appliance to procline the upper incisors is effective in producing long-term correction of the incisor relationship by retroclination of lower incisors, proclination of upper incisors, and redirection of mandibular growth in a downward direction. The direction of growth at the chin is maintained subsequent to treatment, as are the changes in incisor inclination, although in diminished form. There are corresponding improvements in the soft tissue profile. (+info)
(3/96) A medico-legal review of some current UK guidelines in orthodontics: a personal view.
This article is a critical analysis from a medico-legal perspective of some current authoritative UK clinical guidelines in orthodontics. Two clinical guidelines have been produced by the Royal College of Surgeons of England and four by the British Orthodontic Society. Each guideline is published with the analysis immediately following it. Following recent UK case law (Bolitho v City & Hackney Health Authority, 1997) which allows the courts to choose between two bodies of responsible expert medical opinion where they feel one opinion is not 'logical', it is likely that the UK courts will increasingly turn to authoritative clinical guidelines to assist them in judging whether or not an appropriate standard of care has been achieved in medical negligence cases. It is thus important for clinicians to be aware of the recommendations of such guidelines, and if these are not followed the reasons should be discussed with the patient and recorded in the clinical case notes. This article attempts to highlight aspects of the guidelines that have medico-legal implications. (+info)
(4/96) A comparison of chincap and maxillary protraction appliances in the treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusions.
The purpose of this retrospective investigation was to compare cephalometrically the treatment effects of chincap and maxillary protraction appliances in subjects with a Class III skeletal malocclusion with a combination of an underdeveloped maxilla and prominent mandible. Twenty-four patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment type; the chincap group (mean age 11.03 years, n = 12) and the Delaire type maxillary protraction appliance group (mean age 10.72 years, n = 12). In both groups, a significant increase in ANB, molar relationship, and overjet showed the effect of the appliances in the treatment of Class III malocclusions. In comparing the two groups, the maxilla was displaced more anteriorly and the molar relationship correction was greater in the maxillary protraction appliance group (P < 0.05). Angular and dimensional parameters for lower incisor/NB and nasolabial angle showed significant differences between the groups (P < 0.05). (+info)
(5/96) Effect of wearing cervical headgear on tongue pressure.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether wearing cervical headgear affected tongue pressure on the lingual surface of mandibular incisors, with particular attention to suprahyoid muscle activity. Tongue pressure was recorded using a miniature pressure sensor without cervical headgear and with two cervical headgears with traction forces of 500 and 1200 g, respectively. Electromyographic activity of suprahyoid muscles and respiratory-related movement were recorded simultaneously. Wearing cervical headgear significantly affected tongue pressure and suprahyoid muscle activity in the short-term. A significant increase in tongue pressure was observed in association with an increase in traction force from 500 to 1200 g, whereas no significant difference in suprahyoid muscles activity was seen between these force levels. These results suggest that wearing cervical headgear increases tongue pressure on the lingual surface of mandibular incisors, and this increase in tongue pressure may result from changes in the electromyographic activity of suprahyoid muscles to maintain adequate pharyngeal patency. (+info)
(6/96) The changes in temporomandibular joint disc position and configuration in early orthognathic treatment: a magnetic resonance imaging evaluation.
This study aimed to examine the effects of chin cup therapy on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc position and configuration with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-five individuals ranging in age from 5 to 11 years were evaluated. The treatment group consisted of 15 subjects (10 females and five males) with prognathic facial structures, while the control group comprised 10 subjects (six females and four males) with an orthognathic facial structure. The magnitude of the chin cup force applied to the mandible was 600 g. Unilateral MRIs of the TMJ were taken in all subjects at the beginning and end of the study. No statistically significant changes in the TMJ disc position and configuration during the treatment and control periods could be seen. The values of the alpha angle measurements were found to be different in the treatment and control groups at the beginning (166.23 +/- 2.15 and 172 +/- 1.97, respectively), and end of the treatment and control periods (160.00 +/- 2.16 and 172.00 +/- 2.68). These findings show that if the chin cup appliance is used at an early age and with appropriate forces, there will be no adverse effect on the TMJ disc position and configuration. (+info)
(7/96) Class II correction-reducing patient compliance: a review of the available techniques.
The correction of Class II malocclusions has been hampered by the use of appliances which require the patient to co-operate with headgear, elastics, or the wearing of a removable appliance. 'Non-compliance therapy' involves the use of appliances which minimize the need for such co-operation and attempt to maximize the predictability of results. This article reviews and describes the types of appliances used, and their mode of action-based on the current available research. (+info)
(8/96) The effect of micro-etching on the retention of orthodontic molar bands: a clinical trial.
Failure of orthodontic bands occurs most frequently at the band-cement interface, when conventional glass ionomer cements are used. Modification of the band surface may improve clinical performance by increasing the mechanical interlock at this junction. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the retention of micro-etched and untreated first molar orthodontic bands in a randomized, half-mouth trial. Seventy-nine patients had 304 bands cemented as part of routine fixed appliance therapy. The effect of micro-etching, patient age and gender, operator, molar crossbite, treatment mechanics, and arch on band failure was investigated. Failure rates and survival times were compared for each variable assessed. Micro-etched molar bands showed a significant reduction in clinical failure rate over untreated molar bands and an increase in mean survival time (P < 0.001). Of the other variables examined, only the presence of a molar crossbite had any significant effect on band failure (P = 0.004). (+info)