Maternal intrapartum temperature elevation as a risk factor for cesarean delivery and assisted vaginal delivery.
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association of intrapartum temperature elevation with cesarean delivery and assisted vaginal delivery. METHODS: Participants were 1233 nulliparous women with singleton, term pregnancies in vertex presentations who had spontaneous labors and were afebrile (temperature: 99.5 degrees F [37.5 degrees C]) at admission for delivery. Rates of cesarean and assisted vaginal deliveries according to highest intrapartum temperature were examined by epidural status. RESULTS: Women with maximum intrapartum temperatures higher than 99.5 degrees F were 3 times as likely to experience cesarean (25.2% vs 7.2%) or assisted vaginal delivery (25.2% vs 8.5%). The association was present in epidural users and nonusers and persisted after birthweight, epidural use, and labor length had been controlled. In adjusted analyses, temperature elevation was associated with a doubling in the risk of cesarean delivery (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 3.4) and assisted vaginal delivery (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4, 3.1). CONCLUSIONS: Modest temperature elevation developing during labor was associated with higher rates of cesarean and assisted vaginal deliveries. More frequent temperature elevation among women with epidural analgesia may explain in part the higher rates of cesarean and assisted vaginal deliveries observed with epidural use. (+info)
Schizophrenia and complications of pregnancy and labor: an individual patient data meta-analysis.
Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between complications of pregnancy and delivery and schizophrenia, but none have had sufficient power to examine specific complications that, individually, are of low prevalence. We, therefore, performed an individual patient meta-analysis using the raw data from case control studies that used the Lewis-Murray scale. Data were obtained from 12 studies on 700 schizophrenia subjects and 835 controls. There were significant associations between schizophrenia and premature rupture of membranes, gestational age shorter than 37 weeks, and use of resuscitation or incubator. There were associations of borderline significance between schizophrenia and birthweight lower than 2,500 g and forceps delivery. There was no significant interaction between these complications and sex. We conclude that some abnormalities of pregnancy and delivery may be associated with development of schizophrenia. The pathophysiology may involve hypoxia and so future studies should focus on the accurate measurement of this exposure. (+info)
Effect of mode of delivery in nulliparous women on neonatal intracranial injury.
BACKGROUND: Infants delivered by vacuum extraction or other operative techniques may be more likely to sustain major injuries than those delivered spontaneously, but the extent of the risk is unknown. METHODS: From a California data base, we identified 583,340 live-born singleton infants born to nulliparous women between 1992 and 1994 and weighing between 2500 and 4000 g. One third of the infants were delivered by operative techniques. We evaluated the relation between the mode of delivery and morbidity in the infants. RESULTS: Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1 of 860 infants delivered by vacuum extraction, 1 of 664 delivered with the use of forceps, 1 of 907 delivered by cesarean section during labor, 1 of 2750 delivered by cesarean section with no labor, and 1 of 1900 delivered spontaneously. As compared with the infants delivered spontaneously, those delivered by vacuum extraction had a significantly higher rate of subdural or cerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 2.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 3.9), as did the infants delivered with the use of forceps (odds ratio, 3.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 5.9) or cesarean section during labor (odds ratio, 2.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 3.4), but the rate of subdural or cerebral hemorrhage associated with vacuum extraction did not differ significantly from that associated with forceps use (odds ratio for the comparison with vacuum extraction, 1.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.7 to 2.2) or cesarean section during labor (odds ratio, 0.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.4). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of intracranial hemorrhage is higher among infants delivered by vacuum extraction, forceps, or cesarean section during labor than among infants delivered spontaneously, but the rate among infants delivered by cesarean section before labor is not higher, suggesting that the common risk factor for hemorrhage is abnormal labor. (+info)
Rates for obstetric intervention among private and public patients in Australia: population based descriptive study.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk profile of women receiving public and private obstetric care and to compare the rates of obstetric intervention among women at low risk in these groups. DESIGN: Population based descriptive study. SETTING: New South Wales, Australia. SUBJECTS: All 171,157 women having a live baby during 1996 and 1997. INTERVENTIONS: Epidural, augmentation or induction of labour, episiotomy, and births by forceps, vacuum, or caesarean section. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk profile of public and private patients, intervention rates, and the accumulation of interventions by both patient and hospital classification (public or private). RESULTS: Overall, the frequency of women classified as low risk was similar (48%) among those choosing private obstetric care and those receiving standard care in a public hospital. Among low risk women, rates of obstetric intervention were highest in private patients in private hospitals, lowest in public patients, and generally intermediate for private patients in public hospitals. Among primiparas at low risk, 34% of private patients in private hospitals had a forceps or vacuum delivery compared with 17% of public patients. For multiparas the rates were 8% and 3% respectively. Private patients were significantly more likely to have interventions before birth (epidural, induction or augmentation) but this alone did not account for the increased interventions at birth, particularly the high rates of instrumental births. CONCLUSIONS: Public patients have a lower chance of an instrumental delivery. Women should have equal access to quality maternity services, but information on the outcomes associated with the various models of care may influence their choices. (+info)
Successful first vaginal birth after cesarean section: a predictor of reduced risk for uterine rupture in subsequent deliveries.
BACKGROUND: Uterine rupture is a catastrophic obstetric complication, most often associated with a preexisting cesarean section scar. Although a vaginal birth after a cesarean is considered safe in modern obstetrics, it is not known whether repeated VBACs increase the risk of rupture, or whether the first VBAC proves the strength and durability of the scar, predicting further successful and less risky vaginal deliveries. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of repeated vaginal deliveries on the risk of uterine rupture in women who have previously delivered by cesarean section. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 26 VBAC deliveries complicated by uterine rupture were matched for age, parity, and gravidity with 66 controls who achieved VBAC without rupture. The histories, demography, pregnancy, labor and delivery records, as well as neonatal outcome were compared. RESULTS: We found that the risk of rupture decreases dramatically in subsequent VBACs. Of the 40 cases of uterine rupture recorded during the 18 year study period, 26 occurred during VBAC deliveries. Of these, 21 were complicated first VBACs. We also found that the use of prostaglandin-estradiol, instrumental deliveries, and oxytocin had been used significantly more often during deliveries complicated with rupture than in VBAC controls. CONCLUSIONS: Once a woman has achieved VBAC the risk of rupture falls dramatically. The use of oxytocin, PGE2 and instrumental deliveries are additional risk factors for rupture, therefore caution should be exerted regarding their application in the presence of a uterine scar, particularly in the first vaginal birth after cesarean. (+info)
Randomised controlled trial of midwife led debriefing to reduce maternal depression after operative childbirth.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a midwife led debriefing session during the postpartum hospital stay in reducing the prevalence of maternal depression at six months postpartum among women giving birth by caesarean section, forceps, or vacuum extraction. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Large maternity teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 1041 women who had given birth by caesarean section (n= 624) or with the use of forceps (n= 353) or vacuum extraction (n= 64). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal depression (score >/=13 on the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale) and overall health status (comparison of mean scores on SF-36 subscales) measured by postal questionnaire at six months postpartum. RESULTS: 917 (88%) of the women recruited responded to the outcome questionnaire. More women allocated to debriefing scored as depressed six months after birth than women allocated to usual postpartum care (81 (17%) v 65 (14%)), although this difference was not significant (odds ratio=1.24, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.77). They were also more likely to report that depression had been a problem for them since the birth, but the difference was not significant (123 (28%) v 94 (22%); odds ratio=1. 37, 1.00 to 1.86). Women allocated to debriefing had poorer health status on seven of the eight SF-36 subscales, although the difference was significant only for role functioning (emotional): mean scores 73.32 v 78.98, t= -2.31, 95% confidence interval -10.48 to -0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Midwife led debriefing after operative birth is ineffective in reducing maternal morbidity at six months postpartum. The possibility that debriefing contributed to emotional health problems for some women cannot be excluded. (+info)
Comparison of maternal and infant outcomes between vacuum extraction and forceps deliveries.
The authors conducted a population-based historical cohort study in the Canadian province of Quebec to assess the maternal and infant outcomes associated with vacuum extraction and forceps deliveries. The study database contains information on 305,391 mother-infant dyads (linked by a common institutional code and hospital chart number) for singleton live vaginal births with a nonbreech presentation at the gestational age of 37 or more completed weeks and a birth weight between 2,500 and 4,000 g during fiscal years 1991/1992 to 1995/1996. Of the births, 31,015 were delivered by vacuum extraction, and 18,727 were delivered by forceps. Compared with delivery by forceps, the adjusted risk ratios for third-/fourth-degree perineal laceration, intracranial hemorrhage, subdural or cerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cephalhematoma, and neonatal in-hospital death were 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.50), 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.73, 2.25), 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 1.93), 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.16, 5.97), 5.44 (confidence interval: 1.26, 23.43), 2.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.89, 2.16), and 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.32, 2.70), respectively. The authors conclude that vacuum extraction causes less maternal trauma but may increase the risk of cephalhematoma and certain types of intracranial hemorrhage (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage). (+info)
Very early termination of pregnancy (menstrual extraction).
Very early termination of pregnancy was performed on 424 women in three London teaching hospitals. Altogether 90% of the women were no more than 14 days overdue, and 67% of these had histological evidence of pregnancy. The procedure differed little in technique or its acceptability to the patient from termination done later in the first trimester. The similar incidence of complications suggested that it is not an alternative to conventional contraception. The response of patients, general practitioners, and referral agencies, however, indicated that there is a definite need in the community for a very early termination service. (+info)