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(1/380) Validation of haemodialysis recirculation and access blood flow measured by thermodilution.

BACKGROUND: Recirculation (R) and access blood flow (Qac) measurements are considered useful indicators of adequate delivery of haemodialysis. It was the purpose of this study to compare measurements of R and Qac obtained by two different techniques which are based on the same principle of indicator dilution, but which differ because of the characteristics of the injection and detection of the different indicators used. METHODS: Recirculation measured by a thermal dilution technique using temperature sensors (BTM, Fresenius Medical Care) was compared with recirculation measured by a validated saline dilution technique using ultrasonic transducers placed on arterial and venous segments of the extracorporeal circulation (HDM, Transonic Systems, Inc.). Calculated access flows were compared by Bland Altman analysis. Data are given as mean +/- SD. RESULTS: A total of 104 measurements obtained in 52 treatments (17 patients, 18 accesses) were compared. Recirculation measured with correct placement of blood lines and corrected for the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation using the 'double recirculation technique' was -0.02 +/- 0.14% by the BTM technique and not different from the 0% measured by the HDM technique. Recirculation measured with reversed placement of blood lines and corrected for the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation was 19.66 +/- 10.77% measured by the BTM technique compared with 20.87 +/- 11.64% measured by the HDM technique. The difference between techniques was small (-1.21 +/- 2.44%) albeit significant. Access flow calculated from BTM recirculation was 1328 +/- 627 ml/min compared with 1390 +/- 657 ml/min calculated by the HDM technique. There was no bias between techniques. CONCLUSION: BTM thermodilution yields results which are consistent with the HDM ultrasound dilution technique with regard to both recirculation and access flow measurement.  (+info)

(2/380) Extracorporeal rheopheresis in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke: A randomized pilot study.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Extracorporeal rheopheresis is a safe method to optimize hemorheology. Our aim was to determine whether treatment with extracorporeal rheopheresis in patients with acute ischemic hemispheric stroke improves cerebral perfusion as assessed with serial 99mTc-ethyl-cysteinate-dimer single-photon emission CT (99mTc-ECD SPECT). We also investigated how clinical outcome is associated with treatment and imaging results. METHODS: Thirty-three patients (mean age, 64+/-10 years) with acute ischemic hemispheric stroke were included in a prospective, randomized, parallel group pilot study. First treatment with or without extracorporeal rheopheresis took place within 12 hours after the onset of symptoms and was repeated 3 times at intervals of 24 hours. Hemorheological parameters were measured before and after each session. Each patient underwent 99mTc-ECD SPECT immediately before treatment, 6 to 8 hours after treatment, and after 5 days. A semiquantitative SPECT graded scale was used to measure depth and extent of activity deficits and thus to quantify the perfusion deficit. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were actively treated with extracorporeal rheopheresis, and 16 patients did not receive extracorporeal rheopheresis. After 3 months, no differences were found in the functional or neurological outcome. Despite a rapid, sustained decrease of plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation in the rheopheresis group, there was no significant difference in the SPECT graded scale after therapy between the 2 groups. Patients with early reperfusion (decrease in the SPECT graded scale >25% 6 to 8 hours after therapy compared with the baseline examination) experienced a better functional outcome (Modified Rankin Scale) after 3 months compared with patients without reperfusion (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Since quantitative flow mapping and clinical follow-up did not reveal any differences between patients who were treated with extracorporeal rheopheresis and controls, it appears very unlikely that extracorporeal rheopheresis enhances reperfusion after acute cerebral ischemia.  (+info)

(3/380) The effects of extracorporeal whole body hyperthermia on the functional and phenotypic features of canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).

In this study the effect of transient 42.3 degrees C whole body hyperthermia (WBH) on the distribution of PBMC phenotypes and in vitro blastogenic responsiveness was determined in dogs. Hyperthermia (n = 6) was induced by heating venous blood during extracorporeal circulation (venous perfusion WBH); perfused non-heated dogs (n = 4) were used as controls. Both euthermic and hyperthermic perfusion produced transient lymphopenia which normalized in controls after perfusion but persisted in hyperthermic animals throughout the 8-day post-perfusion observation interval. The transient lymphopenia in control dogs was non-selective. In contrast, WBH-associated lymphopenia was selective, in that CD5+ T lymphocytes were more sensitive to hyperthermia than sIg+ B cells and, within the T cell compartment, suppressor (CD8+) cells were more sensitive to hyperthermic stress than helper (CD4+) lymphocytes. Functional analyses showed that WBH caused persistent suppression of PBMC blastogenesis in response to T cell phytomitogens. Increased plasma cortisol levels were correlated to peak lymphopenia and hyporesponsiveness to phytomitogens. Despite these alterations, high grade WBH was well tolerated and there was no evidence of opportunistic infection.  (+info)

(4/380) Coating of extracorporeal circuit with heparin does not prevent sequestration of propofol in vitro.

Propofol is sequestered in extracorporeal circuits, but the factors responsible for the phenomenon are mostly unknown. We have compared two extracorporeal circuits (oxygenators, reservoirs and tubings) coated with heparin with two corresponding uncoated circuits for their capacity to sequester propofol in vitro. Three experiments were conducted with each circuit. The circuit was primed with a mixture of Ringer's acetate solution and whole blood, and the study conditions (pump flow, temperature, pH) were standardized. Propofol was added to the solution to achieve a concentration of 2 micrograms ml-1. These studies were followed with concentrations of 10- and 100-fold to assess possible saturation of propofol binding. Serial samples were obtained from the circulating solution for measurement of propofol concentration. Propofol concentrations decreased to 22-32% of the initial predicted concentration of 2 micrograms ml-1 in the circuits (no significant difference between circuits). With greater concentrations, the circuits did not become saturated with propofol, even with the highest predicted concentration of 200 micrograms ml-1. We conclude that propofol was sequestered in extracorporeal circuits in vitro, irrespective of coating the circuit with heparin.  (+info)

(5/380) Metabolism of radioiodinated fatty acid analogs in ischemic and hypoxic canine myocardium.

Myocardial metabolism of 17-[123I]-iodoheptadecanoic acid (IHDA), 15-(p-[131I]-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (pIPPA) and 15-(p-[125I]-iodophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (DMIPP) was assessed during ischemia and hypoxia. The simultaneous investigation allowed us to evaluate differences in metabolic handling of these three fatty acids. METHODS: In 17 open-chest dogs, the left ascending coronary artery was cannulated and extracorporeal bypass (ECB) perfused. In 3 dogs, ECB flow was kept normal, and these control experiments showed that kinetics of the radioiodinated fatty acids were not affected by the ECB technique itself. In 9 dogs, ECB flow was reduced to one third (ischemia), and in 5 dogs, the ECB area was perfused with venous blood and was kept at control values (hypoxia). After simultaneous intravenous injection of IHDA, pIPPA and DMIPP, seven paired biopsy specimens from the native and ECB-perfused myocardium were taken over an assay period of 35 min. Total activity and the distribution in the aqueous phase and lipid fractions were determined, and time-activity curves were constructed. RESULTS: In ischemic (Is) but not in hypoxic (Hy) myocardium, peak total activity of IHDA, pIPPA and DMIPP decreased significantly versus normal (N) myocardium (IHDA: N = 700 +/- 267 versus Is = 335 +/- 158 dpm/mg/mCi; pIPPA: N = 988 +/- 318 versus Is = 438 +/- 180 dpm/mg/mCi; DMIPP: N = 352 +/- 146 versus Is = 179 +/- 82 dpm/mg/mCi; all P values < 0.001). The relative decrease was similar for IHDA, pIPPA or DMIPP. Half-time values of total activity were prolonged for IHDA and pIPPA but were shortened for DMIPP in ischemic and hypoxic myocardium (IHDA: N = 22, Is = 44 and Hy = 50 min; pIPPA: N = 24, Is = 95 and Hy = 169 min; DMIPP: N = 528, Is = 409 and Hy = 115 min). The aqueous phase activity for IHDA, pIPPA and DMIPP decreased significantly versus normal myocardium in both ischemic (IHDA: N = 71% +/- 9% versus Is = 36% +/- 9%, P < 0.001; pIPPA: N = 62% +/- 10% versus Is = 25% +/- 8%, P < 0.001; DMIPP: N = 26% +/- 11% versus Is = 18% +/- 3%, P < 0.05) and hypoxic (IHDA: N = 76% +/- 8% versus Hy = 62% +/- 8%, P < 0.05; pIPPA: N = 66% +/- 8% versus Hy = 46% +/- 10%, P < 0.05; DMIPP: N = 32% +/- 6% versus Hy = 24% +/- 4%, P < 0.05) myocardium. The relative decrease was significantly highest for pIPPA and lowest for DMIPP. Incorporation into triacylglycerols increased significantly for IHDA, pIPPA and DMIPP in both ischemic and hypoxic myocardium. In normal myocardium, DMIPP was already mainly incorporated into triacylglycerols. Activity of IHDA and pIPPA in acylcarnitine increased significantly in ischemic and hypoxic myocardium. CONCLUSION: Kinetics of the radioiodinated fatty acid analogs in myocardium are altered during oxygen deprivation in a similar fashion as documented in literature for natural fatty acids. However, the changes were different between IHDA, pIPPA and DMIPP, suggesting different metabolic handling and thus reflecting different aspects of myocardial fatty acid metabolism.  (+info)

(6/380) Role of C3 cleavage in monocyte activation during extracorporeal circulation.

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that inhibiting formation of terminal complement components (C5a and C5b-9) prevents platelet and neutrophil (PMN) but not monocyte activation during simulated extracorporeal circulation (SECC). This study examined whether earlier complement inhibition during SECC, blocking C3a formation, would additionally prevent monocyte activation. METHODS AND RESULTS: SECC was established by recirculating heparinized whole blood from human volunteers on a membrane oxygenator. CAB-2, a chimeric protein constructed from genes encoding the complement regulatory proteins CD46 and CD55, inactivates the C3/C5 convertases and blocks in vitro generation of C3a, C5a, and C5b-9. CAB-2 was used in 4 experiments at a final concentration of 300 micrograms/mL and 4 experiments at 30 micrograms/mL; 4 control runs used vehicle alone. Samples were assayed for C3a and C5b-9, monocyte activation (CD11b upregulation), PMN activation (CD11b upregulation and elastase release), and platelet activation (P-selectin expression and monocyte-platelet conjugate formation). CAB-2 at both doses significantly inhibited formation of C3a and C5b-9 during SECC. High-dose CAB-2 significantly blocked monocyte and PMN CD11b upregulation and PMN elastase release. CAB-2 also inhibited formation of platelet activation-dependent monocyte-platelet conjugates. CONCLUSIONS: Blockade of complement activation early in the common pathway inhibited monocyte CD11b upregulation during SECC, suggesting that early complement components contribute most to monocyte activation during SECC. As expected, PMN and platelet activation were blocked by terminal complement inhibition. This investigation further elucidates the relation between complement and blood cell activation during simulated cardiopulmonary bypass.  (+info)

(7/380) Nitric oxide does not modulate the increases in blood flow, O2 consumption, or contractility during CaCl2 administration in canine hearts.

OBJECTIVE: Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) has been shown to have vascular, metabolic, and contractile effects in the heart. We evaluated these effects during intracoronary (i.c.) administration of CaCl2 in dogs. METHODS: The left anterior descending coronary artery of nine anesthetized, open-chest dogs was perfused at controlled pressure (80 mm Hg) with arterial blood. Coronary blood flow (CBF) was measured with a Doppler transducer and segmental shortening (SS) with ultrasonic crystals. Myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) and oxygen extraction (EO2) were calculated. Responses were assessed during i.c. infusions of CaCl2 (5, 10, 15 mg min-1) before and after administration of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 micrograms min-1 for 15 min, i.c.). RESULTS: Before L-NAME, CaCl2 caused dose-dependent, proportional increases in SS and MVO2. Although CBF also increased, these responses were less than proportional to those in MVO2, and thus EO2 increased. L-NAME did not alter the cardiac effects of CaCl2. CONCLUSIONS: (1) CaCl2 had direct inotropic and coronary vasoconstricting effects. (2) The vasoconstricting effect impaired coupling of CBF to the augmented metabolic demands by local vasodilating mechanisms. (3) EDNO did not modulate the increases in CBF, MVO2, or SS during administration of CaCl2.  (+info)

(8/380) A new method of intraoperative hydraulic impedance measurement provides valuable prognostic information about infrainguinal graft patency.

PURPOSE: Prognostic information about graft outcome, obtained by using a new method for intraoperative measurement of vascular impedance, was evaluated. METHODS: Hydraulic impedance was measured in 136 infrainguinal bypass grafts that were entered into a multicenter trial. Seventy femoropopliteal and 66 femorocrural polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts were used. The arterial impedance measurement involved a silicon bypass graft temporarily inserted between the proximal and distal anastomoses sites. A flowmeter probe and a pressure transducer were incorporated into the tube. The digitally stored waveforms were subjected to a fast Fourier transformation and both input (Z(x)) and characteristic (Z(0)) impedances, as well as phase relations, were computed and related to graft outcome after 3 years. RESULTS: Significant prognostic information for both popliteal and crural grafts was provided by means of the phase angle of the first harmonic. Primary and secondary patency rates for popliteal bypasses were 45% +/- 1% and 65% +/- 2% for phase angles greater than -40 degrees (n = 57) and 37% +/- 1% and 40% +/- 1% for phase angles less than -40 degrees (n = 13, p(prim ) = not significant, p(sec) < 0.01). For crural grafts, the secondary patency rates were 49% +/- 1% and 61% +/- 2% for phase angles greater than -40 degrees (n = 53) and 15% +/- 1% and 0% for phase angles less than -40 degrees (n = 13, P <.01). All crural bypass grafts with phase angles less than -40 degrees occluded within 16 months. Steady flow resistance, as well as Z(x) and Z(0), failed to indicate a significant relation to graft prognosis. CONCLUSION: This method provides reliable prognostic information regarding graft patency and opens hydraulic impedance measurement to clinical surgery. The phase lag between flow and pressure curves, as expressed by the phase angle of the first harmonic, provides significant prognostic information.  (+info)