Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins.
Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis. (+info)
Role of alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2.
Interaction between integrin alphavbeta3 and extracellular matrix is crucial for endothelial cells sprouting from capillaries and for angiogenesis. Furthermore, integrin-mediated outside-in signals co-operate with growth factor receptors to promote cell proliferation and motility. To determine a potential regulation of angiogenic inducer receptors by the integrin system, we investigated the interaction between alphavbeta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in human endothelial cells. We report that tyrosine-phosphorylated VEGFR-2 co-immunoprecipitated with beta3 integrin subunit, but not with beta1 or beta5, from cells stimulated with VEGF-A165. VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mitogenicity induced by VEGF-A165 were enhanced in cells plated on the alphavbeta3 ligand, vitronectin, compared with cells plated on the alpha5beta1 ligand, fibronectin or the alpha2beta1 ligand, collagen. BV4 anti-beta3 integrin mAb, which does not interfere with endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin, reduced (i) the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2; (ii) the activation of downstream transductor phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase; and (iii) biological effects triggered by VEGF-A165. These results indicate a new role for alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells. Besides being the most important survival system for nascent vessels by regulating cell adhesion to matrix, alphavbeta3 integrin participates in the full activation of VEGFR-2 triggered by VEGF-A, which is an important angiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration. (+info)
Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta production by nitric oxide-treated chondrocytes: implications for matrix synthesis.
OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) is generated copiously by articular chondrocytes activated by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). If NO production is blocked, much of the IL-1beta inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis is prevented. We tested the hypothesis that this inhibitory effect of NO on proteoglycan synthesis is secondary to changes in chondrocyte transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). METHODS: Monolayer, primary cultures of lapine articular chondrocytes and cartilage slices were studied. NO production was determined as nitrite accumulation in the medium. TGFbeta bioactivity in chondrocyte- and cartilage-conditioned medium (CM) was measured with the mink lung epithelial cell bioassay. Proteoglycan synthesis was measured as the incorporation of 35S-sodium sulfate into macromolecules separated from unincorporated label by gel filtration on PD-10 columns. RESULTS: IL-1beta increased active TGFbeta in chondrocyte CM by 12 hours; by 24 hours, significant increases in both active and latent TGFbeta were detectable. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) potentiated the increase in total TGFbeta without affecting the early TGFbeta activation. IL-1beta stimulated a NO-independent, transient increase in TGFbeta3 at 24 hours; however, TGFbeta1 was not changed. When NO synthesis was inhibited with L-NMA, IL-1beta increased CM concentrations of TGFbeta1 from 24-72 hours of culture. L-arginine (10 mM) reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NMA on NO production and blocked the increases in TGFbeta1. Anti-TGFbeta1 antibody prevented the restoration of proteoglycan synthesis by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta + L-NMA, confirming that NO inhibition of TGFbeta1 in IL-1beta-treated chondrocytes effected, in part, the decreased proteoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, the increase in TGFbeta and proteoglycan synthesis seen with L-NMA was reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamide. Similar results were seen with cartilage slices in organ culture. The autocrine increase in CM TGFbeta1 levels following prior exposure to TGFbeta1 was also blocked by NO. CONCLUSION: NO can modulate proteoglycan synthesis indirectly by decreasing the production of TGFbeta1 by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta. It prevents autocrine-stimulated increases in TGFbeta1, thus potentially diminishing the anabolic effects of this cytokine in chondrocytes. (+info)
Role of thrombin receptor in breast cancer invasiveness.
Invasion, the ability of an epithelial cancer cell to detach from and move through a basement membrane, is a central process in tumour metastasis. Two components of invasion are proteolysis of extracellular matrix and cellular movement through it. A potential promoter of these two processes is thrombin, the serine proteinase derived from the ubiquitous plasma protein prothrombin. Thrombin promotes the invasion of MDA-MB231 breast tumour cells (a highly aggressive cell line) in an in vitro assay. Invasion by MDA-MB436 and MCF-7 cells, less aggressive cell lines, is not promoted by thrombin. Thrombin, added to the cells, is a stimulator of cellular movement; fibroblast-conditioned medium is the chemotaxin. Thrombin-promoted invasion is inhibited by hirudin. Stimulation of invasion is a receptor-mediated process that is mimicked by a thrombin receptor-activating peptide. Thrombin has no effect on chemotaxis in vitro. Thrombin receptor is detectable on the surface of MDA-MB231 cells, but not on the other two cell lines. Introduction of oestrogen receptors into MDA-MB231 cells by transfection with pHEO had no effect on thrombin receptor expression, in the presence or absence of oestradiol. This paper demonstrates that thrombin increases invasion by the aggressive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 by a thrombin receptor-dependent mechanism. (+info)
Extracellular matrix remodelling in the endometrium and its possible relevance to the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
Essential features of endometrial physiology involve the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the pathogenesis of endometriosis, interactions of endometriosis cells with ECM can be postulated. Two systems of secreted proteases in the endometrium, the plasmin(ogen) activator/inhibitor and the matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors were examined in cell cultures of uterine endometrial cells from women with and without endometriosis. Soluble urokinase receptor secretion is increased, and mRNA transcription of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) is upregulated by progestin in endometriosis. These findings are compatible with an altered ECM turnover in the endometrium of these patients that may explain a higher invasive potential of retrogradely menstruated endometrial fragments. (+info)
Mechanisms and mediators in coal dust induced toxicity: a review.
Chronic inhalation of coal dust can cause several lung disorders, including simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), chronic bronchitis, lung function loss, and emphysema. This review focuses on the cellular actions and interactions of key inflammatory cells and target cells in coal dust toxicity and related lung disorders, i.e. macrophages and neutrophils, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. Factors released from or affecting these cells are outlined in separate sections, i.e. (1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related antioxidant protection mechanisms, and (2) cytokines, growth factors and related proteins. Furthermore, (3) components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including the modifying role of ROS, cytokines, proteases and antiproteases are discussed in relation to tissue damage and remodelling in the respiratory tract. It is recognised that inhaled coal dust particles are important non-cellular and cellular sources of ROS in the lung, and may be significantly involved in the damage of lung target cells as well as important macromolecules including alpha-1-antitrypsin and DNA. In vitro and in vivo studies with coal dusts showed the up-regulation of important leukocyte recruiting factors, e.g. Leukotriene-B4 (LTB4), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha), as well as the neutrophil adhesion factor Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Coal dust particles are also known to stimulate the (macrophage) production of various factors with potential capacity to modulate lung cells and/or extracellular matrix, including O2-., H2O2, and NO, fibroblast chemoattractants (e.g. Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF beta), PDGF, and fibronectin) and a number of factors that have been shown to stimulate and/or inhibit fibroblast growth or collagen production such as (TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, Insulin Like Growth Factor, and Prostaglandin-E2). Further studies are needed to clarify the in vivo kinetics and relative impact of these factors. (+info)
Matrix valency regulates integrin-mediated lymphoid adhesion via Syk kinase.
Lymphocytes accumulate within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tumor, wound, or inflammatory tissues. These tissues are largely comprised of polymerized adhesion proteins such as fibrin and fibronectin or their fragments. Nonactivated lymphoid cells attach preferentially to polymerized ECM proteins yet are unable to attach to monomeric forms or fragments of these proteins without previous activation. This adhesion event depends on the appropriate spacing of integrin adhesion sites. Adhesion of nonactivated lymphoid cells to polymeric ECM components results in activation of the antigen receptor-associated Syk kinase that accumulates in adhesion-promoting podosomes. In fact, activation of Syk by antigen or agonists, as well as expression of an activated Syk mutant in lymphoid cells, facilitates their adhesion to monomeric ECM proteins or their fragments. These results reveal a cooperative interaction between signals emanating from integrins and antigen receptors that can serve to regulate stable lymphoid cell adhesion and retention within a remodeling ECM. (+info)
alphaSU2, an epithelial integrin that binds laminin in the sea urchin embryo.
At gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo dramatic cell adhesion changes contribute to primary mesenchyme cell ingression movements and to cell rearrangements during archenteron invagination. At ingression, quantitative adhesion assays demonstrated previously that primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) change their affinity for neighboring cells, for a fibronectin-like substrate, and for the hyaline layer. To investigate the molecular basis for these and other differential cell affinities at gastrulation, we have identified an integrin that appears to be responsible for specific alterations in cell-substrate adhesion to laminin. During early cleavage stages blastomeres adhere poorly to laminin substrates. Around hatching there is a large increase in the ability of blastomeres to bind to laminin and this increase correlates temporally with the expression of an integrin on the basal surface all blastomeres. PMCs, after undergoing their epithelial-mesenchymal transition, have a strongly reduced affinity for laminin relative to ectoderm cells and, correspondingly, do not stain for the presence of the integrin. We identified the alpha integrin cDNA from Lytechinus variegatus by RT-PCR. Overlapping clones were obtained from a midgastrula cDNA library to provide a complete sequence for the integrin. The composite cDNA encoded a protein that was most similar to the alpha5 subgroup of vertebrate integrins, but there was not a definitive vertebrate integrin homolog. Northern blots and Western immunoblots showed that the sea urchin integrin, which we have named alphaSU2, is present in eggs and during all stages of development. Immunolocalization with specific polyclonal antibodies showed that alphaSU2 first appears on the basal cell surface of epithelia at the midblastula stage, at a time correlating with the increase in adhesive affinity for laminin. The protein remains at high levels on the basal surface of ectoderm cells but is temporarily reduced or eliminated from endoderm cells during their convergent-extension movements. To confirm integrin binding specificity, alphaSU2 was transfected into an alpha-integrin-deficient CHO cell line. alphaSU2-expressing CHO cells bound well to isolated sea urchin basal lamina and to purified laminin. The transfected cells bound weakly or not at all to fibronectin, type I collagen, and type IV collagen. This is consistent with the hypothesis that alphaSU2 integrin functions by binding epithelial cells to laminin in the basal lamina. In vivo, modulation of alphaSU2 integrin expression correlates with critical adhesive changes during cleavage and gastrulation. Thus, this protein appears to be an important contributor to the morphogenetic rearrangements that characterize gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo. (+info)