New concepts and advances of immobilization of long bones.
OBJECTIVE: To present some new concepts in the treatment of fractures and bone defects of long bones with internal fixation. METHODS: Animal experiments, mechanical tests and clinical analyses were done. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of fracture should be perfect, bone defect can be reconstructed by intramedullary and extramedullary bone graft. Relatively rigid fixation at the early stage and elastic fixation at the later stage are beneficial not only for fracture healing, but also for bone remodeling. In order to avoid complications including non-union, immobilization syndrome of the bone and joint, and implant failure, radiographs should be taken periodically; if there is any bone resorption, weight-bearing should be restricted. (+info)
Percutaneous autologous bone marrow grafting on the site of tibial delayed union.
Six months after injury, 150 mL of autogenous bone marrow was applied percutaneously at the site of delayed union to stimulate the healing of a tibial delayed union fracture in a 44 year-old man. Five months following the procedure, the fracture gaps and bone defects were completely filled with callus, the external fixator was removed, and the patient started using normal leg loading. (+info)
External fixation in proximal tibial osteotomy: a comparison of three methods.
During a period of 6 years (1990-1996), 154 patients with unilateral gonarthrosis underwent proximal tibial osteotomy using 3 different methods of external fixation: (1) closing wedge osteotomy and bilateral fixation; (2) closing wedge osteotomy with unilateral fixation, and (3) opening wedge osteotomy with unilateral fixation. The most common complications were pin-tract infection (25%), temporary nerve palsy (10%), and loss of alignment (17%). At least one complication developed in 33% of patients in this study, indicating that the use and technique of external fixation in proximal tibial osteotomy can be problematic. (+info)
Muscle recovery after immobilisation by external fixation.
We immobilised the right hindlimbs of six-month-old female Wistar rats for four weeks using a biplanar external fixation bridging the knee. The untreated left limbs served as a control group. An additional group of rats was allowed to recover for four weeks after removal of the frame. Immobilisation caused reduction in the wet weights of approximately 50% in the gastrocnemius, quadriceps, soleus and plantaris muscles; this was not restored completely after remobilisation. There was an increase in the activity of acid phosphatase of approximately 85% in the gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles whereas that of creatine phosphokinase was reduced by about 40%. These values returned to nearly normal after remobilisation. Histological and ultrastructural examination showed a marked myopathy of the gastrocnemius muscle after immobilisation although the morphology was largely restored after remobilisation. We conclude that after four weeks of remobilisation, hind-limb muscles do not return to preimmobilisation weights, although biochemical activities and ultrastructural appearance are largely restored. (+info)
Distal femoral fractures after knee arthroplasty.
In seven patients who sustained eight distal femoral fractures following knee arthroplasty all fractures were treated operatively. Seven with open reduction internal fixation and one with external fixation. Seven of eight fractures had an unsatisfactory result. This was due not only to bone quality and fracture comminution, but also to technical problems and choice of implant. Revision surgery is often required. (+info)
Joint distraction in treatment of osteoarthritis (II): effects on cartilage in a canine model.
OBJECTIVE: From a clinical point of view, joint distraction as a treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) of hip and ankle has been demonstrated to be very promising. Pain, joint mobility and functional ability, the most important factors for a patient with severe OA, all improved. Although radiographic joint space enlargement in a significant number of patients suggested cartilage repair, actual cartilage repair remains difficult to evaluate. Therefore the present study was initiated to evaluate the actual effects of joint distraction on cartilage. METHODS: For this purpose a canine model for OA, anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) was used. Sixteen weeks after ACLT articulating Ilizarov joint distraction of the knee was carried out. Absence of mechanical contact between articular surfaces and presence of intra-articular intermittent fluid pressure, characteristics of Ilizarov joint distraction, were confirmed. Twenty-five weeks after ACLT joint tissue of the dogs was analyzed. RESULTS: Biochemical analysis showed that after joint distraction the abnormal cartilage proteoglycan (PG) metabolism, characteristic for OA, had changed to a level found in control joints. Moreover, a mild degree of inflammation, present after ACLT, was reduced upon joint distraction. PG-content and histological cartilage degeneration had not (yet) improved within the time of treatment. DISCUSSION: Results suggest that the promising clinical results of Ilizarov joint distraction in patients with OA are accompanied by changes in cartilage metabolism. A change in proteoglycan turnover, indicating normalization of overall chondrocyte function, might in the long term, with normal joint use, lead to actual repair of cartilage. (+info)
Failure of reduction with an external fixator in the management of injuries of the pelvic ring. Long-term evaluation of 110 patients.
We reviewed 110 patients with an unstable fracture of the pelvic ring who had been treated with a trapezoidal external fixator after a mean follow-up of 4.1 years. There were eight open-book (type B1, B3-1) injuries, 62 lateral compression (type B2, B3-2) and 40 rotationally and vertically unstable (type C1-C3) injuries. The rate of complications was high with loss of reduction in 57%, malunion in 58%, nonunion in 5%, infection at the pin site in 24%, loosening of the pins in 2%, injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in 2%, and pressure sores in 3%. The external fixator failed to give and maintain a proper reduction in six of the eight open-book injuries, in 20 of the 62 lateral compression injuries, and in 38 of the 40 type-C injuries. Poor functional results were usually associated with failure of reduction and an unsatisfactory radiological appearance. In type-C injuries more than 10 mm of residual vertical displacement of the injury to the posterior pelvic ring was significantly related to poor outcome. In 14 patients in this unsatisfactory group poor functional results were also affected by associated nerve injuries. In lateral compression injuries the degree of displacement of fractures of the pubic rami caused by internal rotation of the hemipelvis was an important prognostic factor. External fixation may be useful in the acute phase of resuscitation but it is of limited value in the definitive treatment of an unstable type-C injury and in type-B open-book injuries. It is usually unnecessary in minimally displaced lateral compression injuries. (+info)
Leg lengthening over an intramedullary nail.
Distraction osteogenesis is widely used for leg lengthening, but often requires a long period of external fixation which carries risks of pin-track sepsis, malalignment, stiffness of the joint and late fracture of the regenerate. We present the results of 20 cases in which, in an attempt to reduce the rate of complications, a combination of external fixation and intramedullary nailing was used. The mean gain in length was 4.7 cm (2 to 8.6). The mean time of external fixation was 20 days per centimetre gain in length. All distracted segments healed spontaneously without refracture or malalignment. There were three cases of deep infection, two of which occurred in patients who had had previous open fractures of the bone which was being lengthened. All resolved with appropriate treatment. This method allows early rehabilitation, with a rapid return of knee movement. There is a lower rate of complications than occurs when external fixation is used on its own. The time of external fixation is shorter than in other methods of leg lengthening. The high risk of infection calls for caution. (+info)