(1/110) Molecular and clinical examination of an Italian DEFECT11 family.
The DEFECT11 syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome associated with deletions in the proximal part of chromosome 11p. In this study, we describe in an Italian family the co-existence of multiple exostoses (EXT) and enlarged parietal foramina (FPP), the two major symptoms of this syndrome, with abnormalities of the central nervous system. The latter may be a yet undescribed feature of DEFECT11 syndrome. FISH and molecular analysis allowed us to identify a small deletion on 11p11-p12, further refining the localisation of the FPP gene involved in the DEFECT11 syndrome. (+info)
(2/110) A direct interaction between EXT proteins and glycosyltransferases is defective in hereditary multiple exostoses.
Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an autosomal dominant condition in which bony outgrowths occur from the juxtaepiphyseal regions of the long bones. In a few percent of cases these exostoses undergo malignant transformation to chondrosarcomas. HME results from mutations in one of two homologous genes, EXT1 and EXT2. These are members of a new gene family that is conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to higher vertebrates. In humans this family comprises five genes which are most conserved at their C-termini, but they do not contain any discernible functional motifs and their function(s) is unclear. Indirect evidence suggests that EXT proteins are involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis, act as tumor suppressors and affect hedgehog signaling. One recent study has also reported that these proteins co-purify with glycosyltransferase (GlcA and GlcNAc transferase) activity and on that basis it has been postulated that they are themselves glycosyl-transferases. We performed two-hybrid screens with a fragment of EXT2 from the region that is most highly conserved in the gene family and identified two interacting proteins: the tumor necrosis factor type 1 associated protein and a novel UDP-GalNAc:poly-peptide N -acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Significantly, both these interactions were abrogated by a disease-causing EXT mutation, indicating that they are important in the etiology of HME. The EXT2-GalNAc-T5 interaction provides the first direct physical link between EXT proteins and known components of glycosamino-glycan synthesis. (+info)
(3/110) Perlecan maintains the integrity of cartilage and some basement membranes.
Perlecan is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is expressed in all basement membranes (BMs), in cartilage, and several other mesenchymal tissues during development. Perlecan binds growth factors and interacts with various extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion molecules. Homozygous mice with a null mutation in the perlecan gene exhibit normal formation of BMs. However, BMs deteriorate in regions with increased mechanical stress such as the contracting myocardium and the expanding brain vesicles showing that perlecan is crucial for maintaining BM integrity. As a consequence, small clefts are formed in the cardiac muscle leading to blood leakage into the pericardial cavity and an arrest of heart function. The defects in the BM separating the brain from the adjacent mesenchyme caused invasion of brain tissue into the overlaying ectoderm leading to abnormal expansion of neuroepithelium, neuronal ectopias, and exencephaly. Finally, homozygotes developed a severe defect in cartilage, a tissue that lacks BMs. The chondrodysplasia is characterized by a reduction of the fibrillar collagen network, shortened collagen fibers, and elevated expression of cartilage extracellular matrix genes, suggesting that perlecan protects cartilage extracellular matrix from degradation. (+info)
(4/110) The putative tumor suppressors EXT1 and EXT2 form a stable complex that accumulates in the Golgi apparatus and catalyzes the synthesis of heparan sulfate.
Hereditary multiple exostoses, a dominantly inherited genetic disorder characterized by multiple cartilaginous tumors, is caused by mutations in members of the EXT gene family, EXT1 or EXT2. The proteins encoded by these genes, EXT1 and EXT2, are endoplasmic reticulum-localized type II transmembrane glycoproteins that possess or are tightly associated with glycosyltransferase activities involved in the polymerization of heparan sulfate. Here, by testing a cell line with a specific defect in EXT1 in in vivo and in vitro assays, we show that EXT2 does not harbor significant glycosyltransferase activity in the absence of EXT1. Instead, it appears that EXT1 and EXT2 form a hetero-oligomeric complex in vivo that leads to the accumulation of both proteins in the Golgi apparatus. Remarkably, the Golgi-localized EXT1/EXT2 complex possesses substantially higher glycosyltransferase activity than EXT1 or EXT2 alone, which suggests that the complex represents the biologically relevant form of the enzyme(s). These findings provide a rationale to explain how inherited mutations in either of the two EXT genes can cause loss of activity, resulting in hereditary multiple exostoses. (+info)
(5/110) Vascular complications of osteochondromas.
PURPOSE: Osteochondromas are the most common benign tumor of the bone. They are sometimes responsible for vascular complications involving either veins or arteries, principally around the knee. METHODS: We report six cases of such complications. An extensive review of literature through a computerized research was performed. RESULTS: We found 97 cases that were previously reported in the English literature giving sufficient details and providing data on 103 cases for analysis. CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment of vascular complications of osteochondromas is recommended as an urgent procedure to avoid irreversible damages, such as arterial occlusion, embolism, or phlebitis. Prophylactic resection of osteochondromas in the vicinity of a vessel must be performed. (+info)
(6/110) Comparison of fluorescent single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for detection of EXT1 and EXT2 mutations in hereditary multiple exostoses.
EXT1 and EXT2 are two genes responsible for the majority of cases of hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), a dominantly inherited bone disorder. In order to develop an efficient screening strategy for mutations in these genes, we performed two independent blind screens of EXT1 and EXT2 in 34 unrelated patients with HME, using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and fluorescent single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (F-SSCP). The mutation likely to cause HME was found in 29 (85%) of the 34 probands: in 22 of these (76%), the mutation was in EXT1; seven patients (24%) had EXT2 mutations. Nineteen of these disease mutations have not been previously reported. Of the 42 different amplicon variants identified in total in the cohort, 40 were detected by DHPLC and 39 by F-SSCP. This corresponds to mutation detection efficiencies of 95% and 93% respectively. We have also found that we can confidently distinguish between different sequence variants in the same fragment using F-SSCP but not DHPLC. In light of this, and the similarly high sensitivities of the two techniques, we propose to continue screening with F-SSCP. (+info)
(7/110) Chondrosarcoma in a family with multiple hereditary exostoses.
Multiple hereditary exostoses is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder in which there are numerous cartilage-capped excrescences in areas of actively growing bone. The condition is genetically heterogeneous, and at least three genes, ext1, ext2 and ext3 are involved. The reported risk for malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma has been from 0.6% to 2.8%. We have reviewed six generations of a family with 114 living adult members, 46 of them with multiple exostoses. Four have had operations for chondrosarcoma, giving the risk for malignant transformation as 8.3% in this family. Clinical and radiological examination revealed two additional patients with a suspicion of malignancy, but in whom the histological findings were benign. Reported elsewhere in detail, genetic linkage analysis mapped the causative gene to chromosome 11 and molecular studies revealed a guanine-to-thymine transversion in the ext2 gene. Patients with multiple hereditary exostoses carry a relatively high risk of malignant transformation. They should be informed of this possibility and regularly reviewed. (+info)
(8/110) Acetabular dysplasia associated with hereditary multiple exostoses. A case report.
Hereditary multiple exostoses is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by multiple osteochondromata, most commonly affecting the forearm, knee and ankle. Osteochondromata of the proximal femur have been reported to occur in 30% to 90% of affected patients with coxa valga in 25%. Acetabular dysplasia is rare but has been described. This is the first report of a patient requiring surgical intervention. A girl was seen at the age of nine with hereditary multiple exostoses and when 12 developed bilateral pain in the groin. Radiographs showed severely dysplastic acetabula with less than 50% coverage of the femoral heads and widening of the medial joint space. Large sessile osteochondromata were present along the medial side of the femoral neck proximal to the lesser trochanter, with associated coxa valga. The case illustrates the importance of obtaining initial skeletal surveys in children with hereditary multiple exostoses to identify potential problems such as acetabular dysplasia and subluxation of the hip. (+info)