A novel nucleotide incorporation activity implicated in the editing of mitochondrial transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii.
In Acanthamoeba castellanii, most of the mtDNA-encoded tRNAs are edited by a process that replaces one or more of the first three nucleotides at their 5' ends. As a result, base pairing potential is restored at acceptor stem positions (1:72, 2:71, and/or 3:70, in standard tRNA nomenclature) that are mismatched according to the corresponding tRNA gene sequence. Here we describe a novel nucleotide incorporation activity, partially purified from A. castellanii mitochondria, that has properties implicating it in mitochondrial tRNA editing in this organism. This activity is able to replace nucleotides at the first three positions of a tRNA (positions 1, 2, and 3), matching the newly incorporated residues through canonical base pairing to the respective partner nucleotide in the 3' half of the acceptor stem. Labeling experiments with natural (Escherichia coli tRNATyr) and synthetic (run-off transcripts corresponding to A. castellanii mitochondrial tRNALeu1) substrates suggest that the nucleotide incorporation activity consists of at least two components, a 5' exonuclease or endonuclease and a template-directed 3'-to-5' nucleotidyltransferase. The nucleotidyltransferase component displays an ATP requirement and generates 5' pppN... termini in vitro. The development of an accurate and efficient in vitro system opens the way for detailed studies of the biochemical properties of this novel activity and its relationship to mitochondrial tRNA editing in A. castellanii. In addition, the system will allow delineation of the structural features in a tRNA that identify it as a substrate for the labeling activity. (+info)
Genome-linked protein associated with the 5' termini of bacteriophage phi29 DNA.
A DNA-protein complex was isolated from Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage phi29 by sucrose gradient sedimentation or gel filtration in the presence of agents known to break noncovalent bonds. A 28,000-dalton protein was released from this complex by subsequent hydrolysis of the DNA. The DNA-protein complex was examined for its susceptibility to enzymes which act upon the 5' and 3' termini of DNA molecules. It was susceptible to exonucleolytic degradation from the 3' termini by exonuclease III but not from the 5' termini by lambda exonuclease. Attempts to label radioactively the 5' termini by phosphorylation with T4 polynucleotide kinase were unsuccessful despite prior treatment with alkaline phosphatase or phosphatase treatment of denatured DNA. Removal of the majority of the bound protein by proteolytic digestion did not increase susceptibility. These results suggest that the linked protein is covalently attached to the 5' termini of phi29 DNA. (+info)
Ribonucleases from porcine brain. Partial purification and properties.
1. An acid ribonuclease was partially purified from an acetone powder of porcine brain. This enzyme was an acidic protein with a molecular weight of aroung 70,000. It acted on yeast RNA optimally at about pH 5.9, yielding only a mixture of 3'-mononucleotides, and therefore appears to be an exonuclease. It did not hydrolyze heat-denatured calf thymus DNA or bis(rho-nitrophenyl) phosphate. It was fairly unstable to heat and acid. 2. An alkaline ribonuclease was partially purified from the same source simultaneously. This enzyme was a basic protein with a molecular weight of 25,000-26,000. It was a pyrimidine-specific endoribonuclease, and acted on yeast RNA optimmally at around pH 7.4. It did not hydrolyze heat-denatured calf thymus DNA or bis(rho-nitrophenyl) phosphate. It was fairly stable to heat and acid. (+info)
Characterization of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage PBS2-induced DNA polymerase and its associated exonuclease activity.
The DNA polymerase induced by Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage PBS2 has a Stokes radius of 7.2 in buffers of high ioninc strength, suggesting a molecular weight in the range 145,000 to 195,000. The polypeptide bands observed on gel electrophoresis in dodecyl sulfate have apparent molecular weights of 78,000 and 69,000 (and possibly another 27,000) in equimolar amounts. In buffers of low ionic strength, the enzyme appears to form large aggregates and even precipitates, with about 90% loss of activity. A nuclease activity co-purifies with the PBS2 DNA polymerase and shows similar responses to changes in pH, MgCl2, N-ethylmaleimide, temperature, and dextran sulfate levels. The nuclease produces deoxyribonucleoside 5'monophosphates from denatured DNA containing thymine or uracil. No endonuclease activity is detectable on supercoiled DNA. The inhibition of nuclease activity by added deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, the DNA-dependent turnover of triphosphates, to free monophosphates during DNA polymerization, the inhibition of nuclease activity by 3'-phosphates on the DNA template-primer, and the pattern of digestion of 5'-[32P]phosphate-labeled DNA all indicate that the PBS2 DNA polymerase-associated hydrolytic activity is a 3' leads to 5'-exonuclease. (+info)
Regulation of homologous recombination: Chi inactivates RecBCD enzyme by disassembly of the three subunits.
We report here an unusual mechanism for enzyme regulation: the disassembly of all three subunits of RecBCD enzyme after its interaction with a Chi recombination hot spot. The enzyme, which is essential for the major pathway of recombination in Escherichia coli, acts on linear double-stranded DNA bearing a Chi site to produce single-stranded DNA substrates for strand exchange by RecA protein. We show that after reaction with DNA bearing Chi sites, RecBCD enzyme is inactivated and the three subunits migrate as separate species during glycerol gradient ultracentrifugation or native gel electrophoresis. This Chi-mediated inactivation and disassembly of purified RecBCD enzyme can account for the previously reported Chi-dependent loss of Chi activity in E. coli cells containing broken DNA. Our results support a model of recombination in which Chi regulates one RecBCD enzyme molecule to make a single recombinational exchange ('one enzyme-one exchange' hypothesis). (+info)
Cyclic AMP can decrease expression of genes subject to catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
External cyclic AMP (cAMP) hindered the derepression of gluconeogenic enzymes in a pde2 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but it did not prevent invertase derepression. cAMP reduced nearly 20-fold the transcription driven by upstream activation sequence (UAS1FBP1) from FBP1, encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase; it decreased 2-fold the activation of transcription by UAS2FBP1. Nuclear extracts from cells derepressed in the presence of cAMP were impaired in the formation of specific UASFBP1-protein complexes in band shift experiments. cAMP does not appear to act through the repressing protein Mig1. Control of FBP1 transcription through cAMP is redundant with other regulatory mechanisms. (+info)
Purification, characterization and cDNA cloning of an endo-exonuclease from the basidiomycete fungus Armillaria mellea.
We have purified an endo-exonuclease from the fruiting body of the basidiomycete fungus Armillaria mellea by using an ethanol fractionation step, followed by two rounds of column chromatography. The enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 17500 Da and was shown to exist as a monomer by gel-filtration analysis. The nuclease was active on both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA but not on RNA. It was optimally active at pH8.5 and also exhibited a significant degree of thermostability. Three bivalent metal ions, Mg2+, Co2+ and Mn2+, acted as cofactors in the catalysis. It was also inhibited by high salt concentrations: activity was completely abolished at 150 mM NaCl. The nuclease possessed both endonuclease activity on supercoiled DNA and a 3'-5' (but not a 5'-3') exonuclease activity. It generated 5'-phosphomonoesters on its products that, after a prolonged incubation, were hydrolysed to a mixture of free mononucleotides and small oligonucleotides ranging in size from two to eight bases. Elucidation of its N-terminal amino acid sequence permitted the cDNA cloning of the A. mellea nuclease via a PCR-based approach. Peptide mapping of the purified enzyme generated patterns consistent with the amino acid sequence coded for by the cloned cDNA. A BLAST search of the SwissProt database revealed that A. mellea nuclease shared significant amino acid similarity with two nucleases from Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that the three might constitute a distinct class of nucleolytic enzymes. (+info)
DNA hairpin opening mediated by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins.
The lymphoid cell-specific proteins RAG1 and RAG2 initiate V(D)J recombination by cleaving DNA adjacent to recombination signals, generating blunt signal ends and covalently sealed, hairpin coding ends. A critical next step in the reaction is opening of the hairpins, but the factor(s) responsible has not been identified and had been thought to be a ubiquitous component(s) of the DNA repair machinery. Here we demonstrate that RAG1 and RAG2 possess an intrinsic single-stranded nuclease activity capable of nicking hairpin coding ends at or near the hairpin tip. In Mn2+, a synthetic hairpin is nicked 5 nucleotides (nt) 5' of the hairpin tip, with more distant sites of nicking suppressed by HMG2. In Mg2+, hairpins generated by V(D)J cleavage are nicked whereas synthetic hairpins are not. Cleavage-generated hairpins are nicked at the tip and predominantly 1 to 2 nt 5' of the tip. RAG1 and RAG2 may therefore be responsible for initiating the processing of coding ends and for the generation of P nucleotides during V(D)J recombination. (+info)