Cytokine-mediated inflammatory hyperalgesia limited by interleukin-4.
1. The effect of IL-4 on responses to intraplantar (i.pl.) carrageenin, bradykinin, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated in a model of mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. Also, the cellular source of the IL-4 was investigated. 2. IL-4, 30 min before the stimulus, inhibited responses to carrageenin, bradykinin, and TNFalpha, but not responses to IL-1beta, IL-8 and PGE2. 3. IL-4, 2 h before the injection of IL-1beta, did not affect the response to IL-1beta, whereas IL-4, 12 or 12+2 h before the IL-1beta, inhibited the hyperalgesia (-30%, -74%, respectively). 4. In murine peritoneal macrophages, murine IL-4 for 2 h before stimulation with LPS, inhibited (-40%) the production of IL-1beta but not PGE2. Murine IL-4 (for 16 h before stimulation with LPS) inhibited LPS-stimulated PGE2 but not IL-1beta. 5. Anti-murine IL-4 antibodies potentiated responses to carrageenin, bradykinin and TNFalpha, but not IL-1beta and IL-8, as well as responses to bradykinin in athymic rats but not in rats depleted of mast cells with compound 40/80. 6. These data suggest that IL-4 released by mast cells limits inflammatory hyperalgesia. During the early phase of the inflammatory response the mode of action of the IL-4 appears to be inhibition of the production TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-8. In the later phase of the response, in addition to inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 also may inhibit the release of PGs. (+info)
The effects of inflammation and inflammatory mediators on nociceptive behaviour induced by ATP analogues in the rat.
1. We have studied the behavioural effects of intraplantar injections of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and related compounds in freely moving rats and investigated whether these nociceptive effects are augmented in the presence of inflammatory mediators. 2. We find that in normal animals ATP and analogues produce dose-dependent nocifensive behaviour (seen as bursts of elevation of the treated hindpaw), and localized thermal hyperalgesia. The rank order of potency was: alpha,beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate (alpha,beta-methylene ATP) > 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2-methylthio ATP) > ATP. After neonatal treatment with capsaicin, to destroy small calibre primary sensory neurones, nocifensive behaviour was largely absent. 3. The effects of ATP analogues were assessed in three models of peripheral sensitization: 2 h after dilute intraplantar carrageenan (0.25% w v(-1)); 24 h after irradiation of the hindpaw with ultraviolet (U.V.) B; immediately following prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment. In all models the effect of alpha,beta-methylene ATP was greatly augmented. After carrageenan, significant hindpaw-lifting behaviour activity was induced by injection of only 0.05 nmol of alpha,beta-methylene ATP, some 100 times less than necessary in normal skin. 4. Our data suggest that it is much more likely that endogenous levels of ATP will reach levels capable of exciting nociceptors in inflamed versus normal skin. Our data also suggest the involvement of P2X3 receptor subunits in ATP-induced nociception. (+info)
A study of local anaesthetics. Part 148. Influence of auxiliary substances on the surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII.
The influence of auxiliary substances of the polyol group (glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol) and of their concentration (5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight) upon surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII, viz., N-[2-(2-propoxyphenylcarbamoyloxy)-ethyl] piperidinium chloride was studied. The substances were applied as hydrogel humectants. It was found that their influence on the surface tension, distribution coefficient and pharmaceutical availability from solutions of the potential drug VII depended on the type as well as concentration of the auxiliary substance. From the viewpoints of use in formulations of the drug form, sorbitol used at 5 and 10% concentrations represented the optimum. (+info)
Beneficial effects of raxofelast (IRFI 016), a new hydrophilic vitamin E-like antioxidant, in carrageenan-induced pleurisy.
1. Peroxynitrite is a strong oxidant that results from reaction between NO and superoxide. It has been recently proposed that peroxynitrite plays a pathogenetic role in inflammatory processes. Here we have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of raxofelast, a new hydrophilic vitamin E-like antioxidant agent, in rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy. 2. In vivo treatment with raxofelast (5, 10, 20 mg kg(-1) intraperitoneally 5 min before carrageenan) prevented in a dose dependent manner carrageenan-induced pleural exudation and polymorphonuclear migration in rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy. Lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as well as histological organ injury were significantly reduced by raxofelast. 3. Immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine, a footprint of peroxynitrite, revealed a positive staining in lungs from carrageenan-treated rats. No positive nitrotyrosine staining was found in the lungs of the carrageenan-treated rats, which received raxofelast (20 mg kg 1) treatment. 4. Furthermore, in vivo raxofelast (5, 10, 20 mg kg(-1)) treatment significantly reduced peroxynitrite formation as measured by the oxidation of the fluorescent dihydrorhodamine 123, prevented the appearance of DNA damage, the decrease in mitochondrial respiration and partially restored the cellular level of NAD+ in ex vivo macrophages harvested from the pleural cavity of rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy. 5. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that raxofelast, a new hydrophilic vitamin E-like antioxidant agent, exerts multiple protective effects in carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. (+info)
Reduction of the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rabbits and dogs by encapsulation in long-circulating, pegylated liposomes.
The relative cardiotoxicity of pegylated (STEALTH) liposomal doxorubicin (PL-DOX; Doxil) was compared to nonliposomal doxorubicin (Adriamycin) in rabbits and dogs treated i.v. for up to 22 weeks. No histological evidence of cardiotoxicity was seen in dogs treated with placebo liposomes or PL-DOX every 3 weeks for a total of 10 doses (cumulative doxorubicin dose = 10 mg/kg) either 1 or 5 weeks post-treatment. All dogs treated with the same cumulative dose of free doxorubicin showed marked cardiotoxicity (vacuolization and myofibrillar loss in the myocardium) at both time points. In rabbits, progressive cardiomyopathy was seen in both treatment groups, but was more frequent and severe with free doxorubicin (67% of doxorubicin-treated rabbits, cumulative dose = 12 to 14 mg/kg versus 16% of PL-DOX-treated animals, cumulative dose = 14 to 21 mg/kg). Five doxorubicin-treated rabbits died of congestive heart failure or with histologic evidence of cardiotoxicity (median severity score = 6). No PL-DOX-treated rabbits died of congestive heart failure, although two animals that died early showed microscopic evidence of mild cardiotoxicity (median severity score = 2.5). Cardiotoxicity increased during the post-treatment period in both treatment groups. Rabbits received up to 50% more PL-DOX with no increase in cardiotoxicity. Thus, results in two species demonstrate that the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is significantly decreased when administered as PL-DOX. Significantly more PL-DOX can be given without incurring an increased risk of cardiomyopathy. Recent clinical studies have confirmed that PL-DOX is also less cardiotoxic than the same dose of unencapsulated doxorubicin in humans. (+info)
Enhancement of solubilization and biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by the bioemulsifier alasan.
Alasan, a high-molecular-weight bioemulsifier complex of an anionic polysaccharide and proteins that is produced by Acinetobacter radioresistens KA53 (S. Navon-Venezia, Z. Zosim, A. Gottlieb, R. Legmann, S. Carmeli, E. Z. Ron, and E. Rosenberg, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:3240-3244, 1995), enhanced the aqueous solubility and biodegradation rates of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the presence of 500 microg of alasan ml-1, the apparent aqueous solubilities of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were increased 6.6-, 25.7-, and 19.8-fold, respectively. Physicochemical characterization of the solubilization activity suggested that alasan solubilizes PAHs by a physical interaction, most likely of a hydrophobic nature, and that this interaction is slowly reversible. Moreover, the increase in apparent aqueous solubility of PAHs does not depend on the conformation of alasan and is not affected by the formation of multimolecular aggregates of alasan above its saturation concentration. The presence of alasan more than doubled the rate of [14C]fluoranthene mineralization and significantly increased the rate of [14C]phenanthrene mineralization by Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA505. The results suggest that alasan-enhanced solubility of hydrophobic compounds has potential applications in bioremediation. (+info)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates nociceptive sensory inputs and NMDA-evoked responses in the rat spinal cord.
Central sensitization, the hyperexcitability of spinal processing that often accompanies peripheral injury, is a major component of many persistent pain states. Here we report that the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is a modulator of excitability within the spinal cord and contributes to the mechanism of central sensitization. BDNF, localized in primary sensory neuron cell bodies and central terminals, potentiates nociceptive spinal reflex responses in an in vitro spinal cord preparation and induces c-fos expression in dorsal horn neurons. NMDA receptor-mediated responses, known as a major contributor to central sensitization, were significantly enhanced by exogenous BDNF. Systemic NGF treatment, a procedure that mimics peripheral inflammatory states, raises BDNF levels in sensory neurons and increases nociceptive spinal reflex excitability. This increased central excitability is reduced by trkB-IgG, a BDNF "antagonist." We also show directly that inflammatory pain-related behavior depends on BDNF release in vivo. Thus behavioral nociceptive responses induced by intraplantar formalin and by intraplantar carageenan are significantly attenuated by trkB-IgG. Hence BDNF is appropriately localized and regulated in inflammatory states and is sufficient and necessary for the expression of central sensitization in the spinal cord. We propose that BDNF may function as a modulator of central sensitization in pathological states, and our results suggest that pharmacological antagonism of BDNF may prove an effective and novel analgesic strategy for the treatment of persistent inflammatory pain states. (+info)
We have previously reported that pretreatment with carrageenan (CAR) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in and lethality for mice. Whole blood cultured in vitro was used to show that CAR pretreatment results in about a 200-fold increase in LPS-induced TNF-alpha production. CAR by itself did not induce TNF-alpha production. However, CAR-treated cultured medium sensitized whole blood to make more LPS-induced TNF than did saline-treated cultured medium in vitro. It was also demonstrated that CAR pretreatment increases TNF-alpha mRNA levels of both blood cells and peritoneal exudate cells, but not of bone marrow cells. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages are TNF-alpha-producing cells in CAR-treated mice. In CAR-treated mice, TNF-alpha was seen early after LPS injection in leukocytes in hepatic sinusoids and on the surfaces of endothelial cells. TNF-alpha was also detected late after LPS injection in hepatocytes which become edematous. These results suggest that CAR primes leukocytes to produce TNF-alpha in response to LPS and that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of liver injury. (+info)