A phase I study of the lipophilic thymidylate synthase inhibitor Thymitaq (nolatrexed dihydrochloride) given by 10-day oral administration.
2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-oxo-5-(4-pyridylthio)-quinazoline dihydrochloride (nolatrexed dihydrochloride, Thymitaq, AG337), a specific inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, was developed using protein structure-based drug design. Intravenously administered nolatrexed is active clinically. As oral bioavailability is high (70-100%), nolatrexed was administered orally, 6 hourly for 10 days, at 3-week intervals, and dose escalated from 80 to 572 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 23 patients. Common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 3 toxicities included nausea, vomiting, stomatitis and liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Thrombocytopenia (grade 1 or 2) occurred at doses > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) and neutropenia (grade 2) at 429 and 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). An erythematous maculopapular rash occurred at dosages > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) (7 out of 19 patients). LFT abnormalities occurred in two out of six patients (grade 3 or 4 bilirubin and grade 3 alanine transaminase) at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nolatrexed plasma concentrations 1 h after dosing were 6-16 microg ml(-1), and trough 3-8 microg ml(-1), at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Inhibition of thymidylate synthase was demonstrated by elevation of plasma deoxyuridine. Six-hourly oral nolatrexed for 10 days was associated with antiproliferative effects, but nausea and vomiting was dose limiting at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nine patients were treated at 429 mg m(-2) day(-1); three out of nine experienced grade 3 nausea, but 17 out of 22 treatment courses were completed (with the co-administration of prophylactic antiemetics) and this dose level could be considered for phase II testing. (+info)
The pharmacokinetics and safety profile of oral ganciclovir in combination with trimethoprim in HIV- and CMV-seropositive patients.
AIMS: We investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of oral ganciclovir coadministered with trimethoprim in HIV-and CMV-seropositive patients. METHODS: In an open-label, randomized, 3-way crossover study, 12 adult males received oral ganciclovir 1000 mg every 8h, oral trimethoprim 200 mg once daily, or both drugs concomitantly in a sequence of three 7-day treatment periods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined and adverse events recorded for each treatment. RESULTS: The presence of trimethoprim significantly decreased CLr (12.9%, P=0.0068) and increased t1/2 (18.1%, P=0.0378) of ganciclovir. However, these changes are unlikely to be clinically meaningful. There were no statistically significant changes in trimethoprim pharmacokinetic parameters in the presence of ganciclovir, with the exception of a 12.7% increase in Cmin. Ganciclovir was well tolerated when administered alone or in combination with trimethoprin. CONCLUSIONS: There was no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between oral ganciclovir and trimethoprim when coadministered. (+info)
Extralymphatic disease due to bancroftian filariasis.
Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or B. timori not only affects the structure and function of lymphatic vessels but is also associated with extralymphatic pathology and disease. Because it is now possible to detect living adult worms by ultrasonography, much emphasis is placed on lymphatic pathology. However, the finding of renal damage in asymptomatic microfilaremic carriers has led to increased recognition of the importance of extralymphatic clinical manifestation in bancroftian filariasis. The authors present a number of clinical syndromes that may be manifestations of extralymphatic filarial disease and discuss possible mechanisms that cause these conditions. The main purpose of this paper is to raise the awareness of students and physicians of the prevalence and the importance of extralymphatic disease in bancroftian filariasis so that it is diagnosed and treated properly and also to alert for the need of additional research in this area. (+info)
Comparison of two different time interval protocols for central venous catheter dressing in bone marrow transplant patients: results of a randomized, multicenter study. The Italian Nurse Bone Marrow Transplant Group (GITMO).
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Care of central venous catheter (CVC) in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT) raises significant problems related to the high risk of local infections due to the immunodeficient status, which in itself is a predisposing factor for systemic blood-stream infections. Although frequent changes of CVC dressing might theoretically reduce the incidence of infections, they are also accompanied by significant skin toxicity and patient discomfort. No study has yet addressed these points. The objective of this study was to compare two different time interval protocols for CVC dressing in order to assess the effects on local infections and toxicity. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a multicenter study, 399 bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients with a tunneled CVC (Group A, 230 pts) or a non-tunneled one (Group B, 169 pts) were randomly allocated to receive CVC dressing changes every 5 or 10 days, if belonging to Group A, or 2 or 5 days, if in Group B. Transparent, impermeable polyurethane dressings were used for all patients. The rate of local infections at the site of CVC insertion was assessed by microbiological assays every 10 days, while the severity of skin toxicity was measured according to the ECOG scale. RESULTS: Sixty-five per cent of enrolled patients were finally evaluable. Patients (in both Groups) receiving CVC dressing changes at longer intervals did not show a significant increase in the rate of local infections, while those who received dressing every 2 days had a significant increase in local skin toxicity. Longer intervals were accompanied by a reduction in costs. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that the increase in time interval between CVC dressing changes in BMT patients did not raise the risk of local infections, while significantly reducing patient discomfort and costs. (+info)
The development of biologic end points in patients treated with differentiation agents: an experience of retinoids in prostate cancer.
The evaluation of new therapies in prostate cancer requires unique end points for agents with diverse mechanisms of action. Because retinoic acid may have a confounding effect on prostate-specific antigen, we incorporated a pathological end point into the outcome assessment of two sequential clinical trials using all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and the combination of 13-cis-retinoic acid and IFN-2a (cRA inverted question markIFN). Pre- and posttherapy tumor biopsy specimens were studied for histological changes, apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay), and proliferation index (Ki67). Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression was also evaluated using two different monoclonal antibodies to its intracellular domain (Cytogen 7E11 and Hybritech PM2). Fourteen patients with androgen-independent disease were treated with ATRA (50 mg/m2 p.o. every 8 h daily) and 16 androgen-independent and 4 androgen-dependent patients were treated with cRA inverted question markIFN (10 mg/kg/day cRA plus 3, 6, or 9 million units daily IFN). Both therapies were well tolerated, with fatigue and cheilitis being the most common adverse events. Clinical activity, assessed by radiographs and serum prostate-specific antigen, was minimal, and the majority of patients progressed within 3 months. One patient with androgen-dependent disease had prolonged stabilization for >1 year. The majority of cases (95%) showed no gross histological changes and no difference in apoptotic or proliferative indices. Increased PSMA immunoreactivity was seen in seven of nine (78%) cases using PM2 antibody and in two of nine (22%) cases using the 7E11 antibody. Although antitumor effects were modest, the results suggest a role for retinoids in modulating the expression of PSMA on prostate cancer cells. (+info)
Phase I trial of all-trans retinoic acid in patients with treated head and neck squamous carcinoma.
Although retinoids show promise for prevention of second primary upper aerodigestive tract tumors, the optimum retinoid, dose, and schedule are unknown. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has greater affinity for retinoic acid receptors and may be more active than other retinoids but has a shorter plasma half life and may up-regulate its own metabolism. We defined the maximum long-term tolerable dose, dosing frequency, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of ATRA in patients with treated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Twenty-one patients were randomized to 45, 90, or 150 mg/m2 ATRA either once daily, or as divided doses every 8 h, for 1 year. Pharmacokinetics were assessed periodically. Fourteen men and seven women with previous SCCHN of initial stage I-IV were treated. Grade > or =3 toxicities (reversible) included headache and hypertriglyceridemia in 5 and 6 patients each, mucositis in 2 patients, and hyperbilirubinemia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, colitis, lipasemia, xerostomia, eczema, and arthritis in 1 patient each. The 150-mg/m2 dose was not tolerable. Doses were reduced for grade > or =3 toxicity in seven of eight patients at 90 mg/m2 daily. Three of nine patients at 45 mg/m2/day required dose reduction, two at the once-daily dose. Day 1 ATRA area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) increased with dose, and after 1-2 months of continued dosing, the AUC declined in 7 of 13 patients (54%) studied. ATRA AUC did not correlate with toxicity severity or frequency. Fifteen mg/m2/day every 8 h is a tolerable dose for 1 year in patients with treated SCCHN. ATRA pharmacokinetics did not correlate with toxicity. (+info)
Acute abdomen without cutaneous signs of varicella zoster virus infection as a late complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: importance of empiric therapy with acyclovir.
Two patients complained of severe abdominal pain as the first sign of varicella zoster virus infection about 1 year after allogeneic BMT. In case 1, eruptions, found on the face and chest on admission, became vesicular and dispersed on the third hospital day. Though acyclovir (ACV) was immediately started, he died on the fourth day. In case 2, skin rash was never observed during the clinical course. Laparotomy on the third hospital day revealed many hemorrhagic spots on the liver surface and mucous membrane of the upper GI tract, indicating disseminated visceral disease. Empiric therapy with ACV was successful. (+info)
Recognition of sulfamethoxazole and its reactive metabolites by drug-specific CD4+ T cells from allergic individuals.
The recognition of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by T cells is usually explained with the hapten-carrier model. However, recent investigations have revealed a MHC-restricted but processing- and metabolism-independent pathway of drug presentation. This suggested a labile, low-affinity binding of SMX to MHC-peptide complexes on APC. To study the role of covalent vs noncovalent drug presentation in SMX allergy, we analyzed the proliferative response of PBMC and T cell clones from patients with SMX allergy to SMX and its reactive oxidative metabolites SMX-hydroxylamine and nitroso-SMX. Although the great majority of T cell clones were specific for noncovalently bound SMX, PBMC and a small fraction of clones responded to nitroso-SMX-modified cells or were cross-reactive. Rapid down-regulation of TCR expression in T cell clones upon stimulation indicated a processing-independent activation irrespective of specificity for covalently or noncovalently presented Ag. In conclusion, our data show that recognition of SMX presented in covalent and noncovalent bound form is possible by the same TCR but that the former is the exception rather than the rule. The scarcity of cross-reactivity between covalently and noncovalently bound SMX suggests that the primary stimulation may be directed to the noncovalently bound SMX. (+info)