The magnitude and phase of temporal modulation transfer functions in cat auditory cortex.
Temporal modulation transfer functions (tMTFs) in response to periodic click trains are presented for simultaneous recordings from primary auditory cortex, anterior auditory field, and secondary auditory cortex in 21 cats. The multiunit records could be separated in to 215 single-unit spike trains that allowed a reliable estimate of a group delay, which represents the cumulative delay for responses to repetitive stimuli. For approximately two-thirds of the 215 single units the group delay was within 7.5 msec of the response latency to the first clicks in the trains. For the remaining units, the group delay was on average approximately 14 msec higher, and this may result from differences in synaptic properties. These findings were similar in the three cortical areas studied. The findings are modeled based on presynaptic facilitation and depression and pyramidal cell calcium kinetics, and a quantitative description of the magnitude of the tMTF was obtained that resulted in substantially shorter depression time constants (20 msec) than reported for visual cortex (300 msec). A small amount (0-5.5%) of facilitation that decayed with a time constant of 60 msec was obtained. Auditory cortical cells apparently have much faster recovery mechanisms than visual cortical cells. This allows for the ability of the auditory cortex to reliably track the rhythms that occur in natural sounds. (+info)
Comparison of the effects of halothane, isoflurane and methoxyflurane on the electroencephalogram of the horse.
We have investigated in eight ponies the effects of three different end-tidal concentrations of halothane, isoflurane and methoxyflurane on median (F50) and 95% spectral edge (F95) frequencies of the EEG and the second differential (DD) of the middle latency auditory evoked potential (MLAEP). The three concentrations of each agent were chosen to represent approximately the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), 1.25 MAC and 1.5 MAC for each agent. During halothane anaesthesia, F95 decreased progressively as halothane concentration increased, from mean 13.9 (SD 2.6) at 0.8% to 11.9 (1.1) at 1.2%. DD was lower during anaesthesia with the highest concentration (21 (6.5)) compared with the lowest (27.6 (11.4)). There were no significant changes in F50. During isoflurane anaesthesia, there was a small, but significant increase in F95 between the intermediate and highest concentrations (10.2 (1.5) to 10.8 (1.6)). There were no changes in F50 and DD. Values of F95, F50 and DD at all isoflurane concentrations were similar to those of halothane at the highest concentration. During methoxyflurane anaesthesia, F95 and F50 decreased progressively as methoxyflurane concentration was increased, from 21.3 (0.7) and 6.5 (1), respectively, at 0.26%, to 20.1 (0.6) and 5.6 (0.8), respectively, at 0.39%. DD was lower during anaesthesia with the highest concentration of methoxyflurane (25.7 (7.8)) compared with the lowest (39.7 (20.6)). Values of F95, F50 and DD at all methoxyflurane concentrations were higher than those seen with halothane at the lowest concentration. The different relative positions of the dose-response curves for EEG and MLAEP changes compared with antinociception (MAC) changes suggest differences in the mechanisms of action of these three agents. These differences may explain the incomplete adherence to the Meyer-Overton rule. (+info)
Effect of remifentanil on the auditory evoked response and haemodynamic changes after intubation and surgical incision.
We have observed the effect of intubation and incision, as measured by the auditory evoked response (AER) and haemodynamic variables, in 12 patients undergoing hernia repair or varicose vein surgery who received remifentanil as part of either an inhaled anaesthetic technique using isoflurane or as part of a total i.v. technique using propofol. Anaesthesia was induced with remifentanil 1 microgram kg-1 and propofol, neuromuscular block was achieved with atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 before intubation, and anaesthesia was maintained with a continuous infusion of remifentanil in combination with either a continuous infusion of propofol or inhaled isoflurane. The AER and haemodynamic variables were measured before and after intubation and incision. The effects of intubation and incision on the AER and haemodynamic variables were not significantly different between the remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-isoflurane groups. However, the study had a low power for this comparison. When the data for the two anaesthetic combinations were pooled, the only significant effects were increases in diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate immediately after intubation; these were not seen 5 min after intubation. There were no cardiovascular responses to incision. There were no significant changes in the AER after intubation or incision. (+info)
The role of the hippocampus in auditory processing studied by event-related electric potentials and magnetic fields in epilepsy patients before and after temporal lobectomy.
To clarify the relationship between the hippocampus and the event-related responses in auditory information processing, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) associated with the auditory oddball paradigm in 12 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy before and after surgical treatment, and in eight age-matched healthy volunteers. Lesions in the patients were hippocampal sclerosis (8), cyst (2), cavernoma (1) and calcified arteriovenous malformation (1), all in the unilateral temporal lobe. Standard temporal lobectomy (8), selective amygdalohippocampectomy (2), selective hippocampectomy (1) and inferior lateral temporal resection (1) were carried out. ERPs were recorded in nine patients before surgery, in all 12 patients after surgery, and in all normal subjects. P300 was maximal at Pz in the patients both before and after surgery, and in normal subjects. The peak latency and amplitude of P300 measured at Pz in the patients either before or after surgery did not differ significantly from those in normal subjects. After surgery, only the amplitude of P300 over the anterior and mid-temporal area on the resected side was attenuated, while it was symmetric before surgery regardless of the side of epileptogenic focus. ERFs were recorded in three patients before surgery and in six normal subjects by using a whole-head neuromagnetometer. ERFs in response to the target stimuli at a latency of approximately 400 ms were recognized at the anterior, middle and posterior lateral channels on each hemisphere (M400). The latency and dipole moments for M400 did not differ significantly between the patients before surgery and the normal subjects. As a result of analysis using the time-varying multidipole model, three dipoles for M400 were estimated in two patients in whom ERFs were available before surgery for the analysis, and in normal subjects: mesial temporal area, superior temporal area and inferior parietal area on each hemisphere. After surgery, in four out of six patients in whom ERFs were recordable, M400 at the anterior temporal channels on the resected side disappeared, and the activity in the affected mesial temporal area was lost. In one patient who underwent inferior lateral temporal resection, M400 waveforms and its sources were preserved in all regions. There were no significant differences in the latency and dipole moments of the unaffected source of M400 before versus after surgery. These results suggest that the hippocampus contributes to the scalp-recorded P300 only at the corresponding anterior temporal region, and does not influence its general waveform and predominant distribution over the scalp. (+info)
Auditory event-related potentials (P300) in partial and generalized epileptic patients.
We evaluated the P300 components of event-related potentials (ERP) in 64 cryptogenic partial epilepsy (CPE) patients, and 52 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) patients as well as in their age-matched control groups. The P200, N200 and P300 latencies recorded from Cz were significantly longer in CPE patients compared with those of their control group (P = 0.0371, P = 0.0092 and P = 0.0405, respectively). The P200 and N200 latencies recorded from Fz were significantly longer than in their control group (P = 0.0448 and P = 0.0107) while the prolongation in the P300 latencies was not found to be statistically significant (P = 0.0733). All latencies were longer in IGE patients, and the amplitudes of the N200/P300 components of ERP were lower in both epileptic groups compared with their control groups, but these differences were not significant. The prolongation of the P300 latencies was not correlated with the type or serum level of antiepileptic drug or seizure control. Our findings suggest that the prolongation of the P300 latency of ERP is related to the type of epilepsy. (+info)
Identification of causal relations between haemodynamic variables, auditory evoked potentials and isoflurane by means of fuzzy logic.
The aim of this study was to identify a possible relationship between haemodynamic variables, auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and inspired fraction of isoflurane (ISOFl). Two different models (isoflurane and mean arterial pressure) were identified using the fuzzy inductive reasoning (FIR) methodology. A fuzzy model is able to identify non-linear and linear components of a causal relationship by means of optimization of information content of available data. Nine young female patients undergoing hysterectomy under general anaesthesia were included. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), end-tidal expired carbon dioxide (CO2ET), AEP and ISOFl were monitored with a sampling time of 10 s. The AEP was extracted using an autoregressive model with exogenous input (ARX model) which decreased the processing time compared with a moving time average. The AEP was mapped into a scalar, termed the depth of anaesthesia index (DAI) normalized to 100 when the patient was awake and descending to an average of 25 during loss of consciousness. The FIR methodology identified those variables among the input variables (MAP, HR, CO2ET, DAI or ISOFl) that had the highest causal relation with the output variables (ISOFl and MAP). The variables with highest causal relation constitute the ISOFl and MAP models. The isoflurane model predicted the given anaesthetic dose with a mean error of 12.1 (SD 10.0)% and the mean arterial pressure model predicted MAP with a mean error of 8.5 (7.8)%. (+info)
Click evoked myogenic potentials in the differential diagnosis of acute vertigo.
OBJECTIVE: In response to loud clicks, a vestibular evoked potential can be recorded from sternocleidomastoid muscles, called "click evoked myogenic potential" (CEMP). This paper reports on the usefulness of CEMP in the differential diagnosis of acute vertigo of presumed vestibular origin. METHODS: CEMP was examined in 40 patients with acute vertigo of vestibular origin (26 with acute peripheral vestibulopathy, five with Meniere's disease, three with benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV), six with psychogenic vertigo) and the results compared with standard caloric reaction (CR). For CEMPs, clicks were delivered unilaterally via a pair of headphones. EMG activity was collected by surface electrodes placed on the sternocleidomastoid belly and averaged. RESULTS: In 29 patients, CR was unilaterally abnormal, pointing to a peripheral vestibular lesion. Seventeen of them had a corresponding loss of CEMPs; the other 12 patients had a normal CEMP. The remaining 11 patients had normal results in both tests. In comparison with CR, CEMP showed a sensitivity of 59% and a specificity of 100% for peripheral vestibular disorders. CONCLUSION: CR is a test of the horizontal canal whereas CEMP is thought to be a sacculus test. Different results of CR and CEMP may be due to this difference between target organs stimulated and may be of prognostic value. (+info)
Cortical auditory signal processing in poor readers.
Magnetoencephalographic responses recorded from auditory cortex evoked by brief and rapidly successive stimuli differed between adults with poor vs. good reading abilities in four important ways. First, the response amplitude evoked by short-duration acoustic stimuli was stronger in the post-stimulus time range of 150-200 ms in poor readers than in normal readers. Second, response amplitude to rapidly successive and brief stimuli that were identical or that differed significantly in frequency were substantially weaker in poor readers compared with controls, for interstimulus intervals of 100 or 200 ms, but not for an interstimulus interval of 500 ms. Third, this neurological deficit closely paralleled subjects' ability to distinguish between and to reconstruct the order of presentation of those stimulus sequences. Fourth, the average distributed response coherence evoked by rapidly successive stimuli was significantly weaker in the beta- and gamma-band frequency ranges (20-60 Hz) in poor readers, compared with controls. These results provide direct electrophysiological evidence supporting the hypothesis that reading disabilities are correlated with the abnormal neural representation of brief and rapidly successive sensory inputs, manifested in this study at the entry level of the cortical auditory/aural speech representational system(s). (+info)