Intranasally inoculated Mycoplasma hyorhinis causes eustachitis in pigs.
Specific-pathogen-free pigs were experimentally inoculated with Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Pasteurella multocida, or both bacterial isolates to evaluate the role of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of otitis media. Six pigs were inoculated intranasally with 4.4 X 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of M. hyorhinis. Twenty-one days later, three of these six pigs were inoculated intranasally with 5.0 X 10(8) CFU of P. multocida. Three additional pigs were also inoculated intranasally at the time with P. multocida alone. Two pigs served as uninoculated controls. Seven days later, all pigs were euthanatized. Histologically, subacute inflammation was found in 10 auditory tubes of six pigs and two tympanic cavities of two pigs inoculated with M. hyorhinis. Immunohistochemically, M. hyorhinis antigens were detected on the luminal surface of eight of 10 inflamed auditory tubes, and ultrastructural examination confirmed mycoplasmal organisms in two pigs. M. hyorhinis was isolated from the inflamed tympanic cavities of two pigs. None of the pigs inoculated only with P. multocida had otitis, and P. multocida was not isolated from the tympanic cavity. These findings indicate that M. hyorhinis can cause eustachitis but rarely otitis media in specific-pathogen-free pigs. (+info)
Occlusion of the internal carotid artery by means of microcoils for preventing epistaxis caused by guttural pouch mycosis in horses.
Occlusion of the internal carotid artery by insertion of intravascular platinum microcoils for guttural pouch mycosis was experimentally evaluated in 9 healthy adult Thoroughbred horses. The internal carotid artery was ligated to its origin, and an arteriotomy was made distal to the ligature, which was then occluded by insertion of the microcoil approximately 13 cm distal to its origin. Cessation of blood flow was determined visually and by angiography at the arteriotomy site. Six horses were evaluated for complication clinically and by endoscopy after surgery. One horse was necropsied after 30 days of surgery for histological evaluation of artery thrombus formation. In the other 3 horses, the blood flow of the right internal carotid artery was monitored, before and after microcoil occlusion of the left internal carotid artery. One or 2 microcoils stopped blood flow within a few minutes. No other abnormal findings were observed clinically. Thrombus was observed in the occluded segment of 1 horse 30 days after insertion; but no abnormalities were detected. The blood flow in the right internal carotid artery increased by approximately 28-58% after occlusion of the left internal carotid artery. This microcoil vascular occlusion technique causes an effective thrombosis, and based on experimental studies and clinical application in 2 horses with epistaxis due to guttural pouch mycosis, this technique would appear to be safe and efficacious. (+info)
Surfactant protein A and D expression in the porcine Eustachian tube.
Surfactant proteins A and D are collectins which are considered to play an important role in the innate immunity of lungs. Our aim was to investigate whether surfactant protein A or D is expressed in the porcine Eustachian tube originating from the upper airways. Both surfactant proteins A and D were present in the epithelial cells of the Eustachian tube, as shown by strong immunostaining. Using RT-PCR and Northern hybridization, these collectins were detected in the Eustachian tube. The present study is the first report demonstrating surfactant protein gene expression in the Eustachian tube. Surfactant proteins A and D may be important in the antibody-independent protection of the middle ear. (+info)
CT examination of the guttural pouch (auditory tube diverticulum) in Przewalski's Horse (Equus przewalskii).
The domestic horse (Equus caballus) have the large symmetrical guttural pouches (the auditory tube diverticulum) formed by saccate bulge of the auditory tube. In this study, CT examination was carried out in the head of Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii), the only true wild horse living at present. As results of the examination, Przewalski's horse possessed the large symmetrical guttural pouches divided into medial and lateral compartments by the stylohyoid bone. Moreover, the right and left guttural pouches meet each other at the median part to form a thin septum. As CT sections get close to the part of the occipital condyle, the lateral compartment disappeared, and the medial compartment gradually became small toward the base of the skull. These results indicate that the nuchal-basal part of the medial compartment is not well-developed as compared with the domestic horse. (+info)
Primary distension of the guttural pouch lateral compartment secondary to empyema.
A 6-year-old, 420-kg quarter horse gelding was presented with a 2-month history of difficulty swallowing and dyspnea. The horse was diagnosed with a right guttural pouch empyema with many large chondroids. Two surgeries were required to completely remove all the chondroids from what proved to be a primary distension of the guttural pouch lateral compartment. (+info)
Distribution of immunoglobulin isotypes and subisotypes in equine guttural pouch (auditory tube diverticulum).
To clarify the functions of the equine guttural pouch, the distribution of various immunoglobulin isotypes and subisotypes in the guttural pouch mucosa were examined in healthy horses. IgGa was present in the mucosa of guttural pouch, mucosal lymph nodules and submucosal lymph nodules. IgM was scattered in the mucosal lymph nodules and in the germinal centers of the submucosal lymph nodules. IgGc was recognized only in the submucosal lymph nodules. These immunoglobulin isotypes and subisotypes were found in lymphocytes and plasma cells. On the other hand, IgA was detected in glandular epithelial cells and the surface layer of the mucosal epithelium, as well as in free cells. This finding suggests that IgA is secreted through the glandular epithelium. Based on the above findings, we conclude that the guttural pouch has phylactic ability. (+info)
Galbreath technique: a manipulative treatment for otitis media revisited.
Otitis media is a common disorder that results in numerous visits to the physician each year. Antimicrobials, antihistamines, steroids, and surgery have all been used to treat otitis media; however, the literature makes little mention of osteopathic manipulative treatment in this regard. This article describes a technique that was first described in 1929 by William Otis Galbreath, DO. By simple mandibular manipulation, the eustachian tube is made to open and close in a "pumping action" that allows the ear to drain accumulated fluid more effectively. Physicians can easily teach this procedure to parents for use at home. (+info)
Expression and localization of lung surfactant protein B in Eustachian tube epithelium.
Surfactant protein (SP) B is an essential component of the pulmonary surfactant complex, which participates in reducing the surface tension across the alveolar air-liquid interface. The Eustachian tube (ET) connects the upper respiratory tract to the middle ear, serving as an intermittent airway between the pharynx and the middle ear. Recently, we described the expression of SP-A and SP-D in the ET, suggesting their role in middle ear host defense. Our present aim was to detect whether the expression of SP-B is evident in the porcine ET. With Northern blot analysis, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridizations, SP-B mRNA was identified and localized in the ET epithelium. The cellular localization of SP-B was revealed with immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy. The protein was found in the secretory granules of epithelial cells and also attached to the microvilli at the luminal side of these cells. The SP-B immunoreactivity of aggregates isolated from ET lavage fluid was similar to that isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We conclude that there are specialized cells in the ET epithelium expressing and secreting SP-B and propose that SP-B may facilitate normal opening of the tube and mucociliary transport. (+info)