(1/14) New sesquiterpenes from Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae).
A new sesquiterpene evoninate alkaloid (1), and two sesquiterpenes (2, 3) with a dihydro-beta-agarofuran skeleton, along with three known sesquiterpenes (4-6), were isolated from the seeds of Euonymus europaeus. Their structures were elucidated by high resolution mass analysis, and one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) NMR spectroscopy, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation [correlation spectroscopy (COSY), rotating frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (ROESY), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC)] experiments. (+info)
(2/14) Five disulfide bridges stabilize a hevein-type antimicrobial peptide from the bark of spindle tree (Euonymus europaeus L.).
A small 45 amino acid residue antifungal polypeptide was isolated from the bark of spindle tree (Euonymus europaeus L.). Though the primary structure of this so-called E. europaeus chitin-binding protein or Ee-CBP is highly similar to the hevein domain, it distinguishes itself from most previously identified hevein-type antimicrobial peptides (AMP) by the presence of two extra cysteine residues that form an extra disulfide bond. Due to these five disulfide bonds Ee-CBP is a remarkably stable protein. Agar diffusion and microtiterplate assays demonstrated that Ee-CBP is a potent antimicrobial protein. IC(50)-values as low as 1 microg/ml were observed for the fungus Botrytis cinerea. Comparative assays further demonstrated that Ee-CBP is a stronger inhibitor of fungal growth than Ac-AMP2 from Amaranthus caudatus seeds, which is considered one of the most potent antifungal hevein-type plant proteins. (+info)
(3/14) Studies on Galalpha3-binding proteins: comparison of the glycosphingolipid binding specificities of Marasmius oreades lectin and Euonymus europaeus lectin.
The carbohydrate binding preferences of the Galalpha3Galbeta4 GlcNAc-binding lectins from Marasmius oreades and Euonymus europaeus were examined by binding to glycosphingolipids on thin-layer chromatograms and in microtiter wells. The M. oreades lectin bound to Galalpha3-terminated glycosphingolipids with a preference for type 2 chains. The B6 type 2 glycosphingolipid (Galalpha3[Fucalpha2]Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer) was preferred over the B5 glycosphingolipid (Galalpha3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer), suggesting that the alpha2-linked Fuc is accommodated in the carbohydrate binding site, providing additional interactions. The lectin from E. europaeus had broader binding specificity. The B6 type 2 glycosphingolipid was the best ligand also for this lectin, but binding to the B6 type 1 glycosphingolipid (Galalpha3[Fucalpha2]Galbeta3GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer) was also obtained. Furthermore, the H5 type 2 glycosphingolipid (Fucalpha2Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer), devoid of a terminal alpha3-linked Gal, was preferred over the the B5 glycosphingolipid, demonstrating a significant contribution to the binding affinity by the alpha2-linked Fuc. The more tolerant nature of the lectin from E. europaeus was also demonstrated by the binding of this lectin, but not the M. oreades lectin, to the x2 glycosphingolipid (GalNAcbeta3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer) and GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer. The A6 type 2 glycosphingolipid (GalNAcalpha3[Fucalpha2]Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1Cer) and GalNAcalpha3Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta3Galbeta4Glcbeta1-Cer were not recognized by the lectins despite the interaction with B6 type 2 glycosphingolipid and the B5 glycosphingolipid. These observations are explained by the absolute requirement of a free hydroxyl in the 2-position of Galalpha3 and that the E. europaea lectin can accommodate a GlcNAc acetamido moiety close to this position by reorienting the terminal sugar, whereas the M. oreades lectin cannot. (+info)
(4/14) Isolation of a gene encoding a 1,2-diacylglycerol-sn-acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase from developing seeds of Euonymus alatus.
1,2-Diacyl-3-acetyl-sn-glycerols (ac-TAG) are unusual triacylglycerols that constitute the major storage lipid in the seeds of Euonymus alatus (Burning Bush). These ac-TAGs have long-chain acyl groups esterified at both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of glycerol. Cell-free extracts of developing seeds of E. alatus contain both long-chain acyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA sn-1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity. We have isolated a gene from developing seeds of Euonymus alatus that shows a very high sequence similarity to the members of the DGAT1 gene family (i.e. related to acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferases). This Euonymus DGAT1 gene, when expressed in wild type yeast, results in a 5-fold enhancement of long-chain triacylglycerol (lc-TAG) accumulation, as well as the appearance of low levels of ac-TAG. Hydrogenated ac-TAG molecular species were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Microsomes isolated from this transformed yeast show diacylglycerol:acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase activity, which is about 40-fold higher than that measured in microsomes prepared from yeast transformed with the empty vector or with the Arabidopsis thaliana DGAT1 gene. The specific activity of this microsomal acetyltransferase activity is of the same order of magnitude as the microsomal long-chain DGAT activities measured for yeast lines transformed with the empty vector or either the Arabidopsis or Euonymus DGAT1 genes. Despite this, ac-TAG accumulation in yeast transformed with the Euonymus DGAT1 gene was very low (0.26% of lc-TAG), whereas lc-TAG accumulation was enhanced. Possible reasons for this anomaly are discussed. Expression of the Euonymus DGAT1-like gene in yeast lines where endogenous TAG synthesis has been deleted confirmed that the gene product has both long-chain acyl- and acetyltransferase activity. (+info)
(5/14) Chemical shift assignments of two oleanane triterpenes from Euonymus hederaceus.
(1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR assignments of 12-oleanene-3,11-dione (compound 1) were completely described for the first time through conventional 1D NMR and 2D shift-correlated NMR experiments using (1)H-(1)HCOSY, HMQC, HMBC techniques. Based on its NMR data, the assignments of 28-hydroxyolean-12-ene-3,11-dione (compound 2) were partially revised. (+info)
(6/14) Two new sesquiterpene polyesters from the seeds of Euonymus nanoides LOES.
Two new beta-dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyesters, 1S,13-diacetyloxy-4S-hydroxy-6R-(3-)furancarbonyloxy-9S-cinnamoyloxy-beta-dihydro agarofuran (1) and 1S,6R-di(2-)methylbutanoyloxy-4S-hydroxy-8S-benzoyloxy-9R-(3-)furancarbonyloxy-13 -acetyloxy-beta-dihydroagarofuran (2), together with one known compound (3) were isolated from the seeds of Euonymus nanoides LOES. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. Compound 2 showed moderate antitumor activity against BEL-7402, P-388, HL-60 and A-549. (+info)
(7/14) The "old" Euonymus europaeus agglutinin represents a novel family of ubiquitous plant proteins.
(8/14) Inhibition of human cytomegalovirus IE gene expression by dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes isolated from Euonymus species.
The development of strategies intended to inhibit human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate-early (IE) antigen expression is an important goal in research designed to prevent and treat certain forms of cancer. The aim of this study was to identify potent IE antigen-targeting natural compounds as antitumor promoters in an in vitro model of tumor promotion. Nineteen dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes isolated from Euonymus species were evaluated for their ability to inhibit HCMV IE antigen expression in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Five esters of penta- and hexahydroxydihydro-beta-agarofuran proved to be active components in these Euonymus species, inhibiting the IE antigen expression of HCMV. The highest activity was displayed by 2beta,6alpha,15-triacetoxy1beta-benzoyloxy-9alpha-nicotinoyloxydihydro-beta-agaro furan. These effective compounds may be regarded as prototypes of antitumor promoters, as secondary chemopreventive agents which can modify or halt tumor promotion in general. (+info)