(1/1341) Characterization of transgenic mice with targeted disruption of the catalytic domain of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR.
The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR has been implicated in anti-viral, anti-tumor, and apoptotic responses. Others have attempted to examine the requirement of PKR in these roles by targeted disruption at the amino terminal-encoding region of the Pkr gene. By using a strategy that aims at disruption of the catalytic domain of PKR, we have generated mice that are genetically ablated for functional PKR. Similar to the other mouse model of Pkr disruption, we have observed no consequences of loss of PKR on tumor suppression. Anti-viral response to influenza and vaccinia also appeared to be normal in mice and in cells lacking PKR. Cytokine signaling in the type I interferon pathway is normal but may be compromised in the erythropoietin pathway in erythroid bone marrow precursors. Contrary to the amino-terminal targeted Pkr mouse, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and the anti-viral apoptosis response to influenza is not impaired in catalytic domain-targeted Pkr-null cells. The observation of intact eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha phosphorylation in these Pkr-null cells provides proof of rescue by another eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha kinase(s). (+info)
(2/1341) Conserved bipartite motifs in yeast eIF5 and eIF2Bepsilon, GTPase-activating and GDP-GTP exchange factors in translation initiation, mediate binding to their common substrate eIF2.
In the initiation phase of eukaryotic translation, eIF5 stimulates the hydrolysis of GTP bound to eIF2 in the 40S ribosomal pre-initiation complex, and the resultant GDP on eIF2 is replaced with GTP by the complex nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B. Bipartite motifs rich in aromatic and acidic residues are conserved at the C-termini of eIF5 and the catalytic (epsilon) subunit of eIF2B. Here we show that these bipartite motifs are important for the binding of these factors, both in vitro and in vivo, to the beta subunit of their common substrate eIF2. We also find that three lysine-rich boxes in the N-terminal segment of eIF2beta mediate the binding of eIF2 to both eIF5 and eIF2B. Thus, eIF5 and eIF2Bepsilon employ the same sequence motif to facilitate interaction with the same segment of their common substrate. In agreement with this, archaea appear to lack eIF5, eIF2B and the lysine-rich binding domain for these factors in their eIF2beta homolog. The eIF5 bipartite motif is also important for its interaction with the eIF3 complex through the NIP1-encoded subunit of eIF3. Thus, the bipartite motif in eIF5 appears to be multifunctional, stimulating its recruitment to the 40S pre-initiation complex through interaction with eIF3 in addition to binding of its substrate eIF2. (+info)
(3/1341) Universal conservation in translation initiation revealed by human and archaeal homologs of bacterial translation initiation factor IF2.
Binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA to ribosomes is catalyzed in prokaryotes by initiation factor (IF) IF2 and in eukaryotes by eIF2. The discovery of both IF2 and eIF2 homologs in yeast and archaea suggested that these microbes possess an evolutionarily intermediate protein synthesis apparatus. We describe the identification of a human IF2 homolog, and we demonstrate by using in vivo and in vitro assays that human IF2 functions as a translation factor. In addition, we show that archaea IF2 can substitute for its yeast homolog both in vivo and in vitro. We propose a universally conserved function for IF2 in facilitating the proper binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA to the ribosomal P site. (+info)
(4/1341) Activation of C3G guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1 by phosphorylation of tyrosine 504.
C3G is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1 and is activated by the expression of Crk adaptor proteins. We found that expression of CrkI in COS cells induced significant tyrosine phosphorylation of C3G. To understand the mechanism by which C3G is phosphorylated and activated by Crk, we constructed a series of deletion mutants. Deletion of the amino terminus of C3G to amino acid 61 did not remarkably affect either tyrosine phosphorylation or Crk-dependent activation of C3G. When C3G was truncated to amino acid 390, C3G was still phosphorylated on tyrosine but was not effectively activated by CrkI. Deletion of the amino terminus of C3G to amino acid 579 significantly reduced the Crk-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of C3G and increased GTP-bound Rap1 irrespective of the presence of CrkI. We substituted all seven tyrosine residues in this region, amino acids 391-579, for phenylalanine for identification of the phosphorylation site. Among the substitution mutants, the C3G-Y504F mutant, in which tyrosine 504 was substituted by phenylalanine, was remarkably less activated and phosphorylated than the wild type. All the other substitution mutants were activated and tyrosyl-phosphorylated by the expression of CrkI. Thus, CrkI activates C3G by the phosphorylation of tyrosine 504, which represses the cis-acting negative regulatory domain outside the catalytic region. (+info)
(5/1341) Post-termination ribosome interactions with the 5'UTR modulate yeast mRNA stability.
A novel form of post-transcriptional control is described. The 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene encoding the AP1-like transcription factor Yap2 contains two upstream open reading frames (uORF1 and uORF2). The YAP2-type of uORF functions as a cis-acting element that attenuates gene expression at the level of mRNA turnover via termination-dependent decay. Release of post-termination ribosomes from the YAP2 5'UTR causes accelerated decay which is largely independent of the termination modulator gene UPF1. Both of the YAP2 uORFs contribute to the destabilization effect. A G/C-rich stop codon context, which seems to promote ribosome release, allows an uORF to act as a transferable 5'UTR-destabilizing element. Moreover, termination-dependent destabilization is potentiated by stable secondary structure 3' of the uORF stop codon. The potentiation of uORF-mediated destabilization is eliminated if the secondary structure is located further downstream of the uORF, and is also influenced by a modulatory mechanism involving eIF2. Destabilization is therefore linked to the kinetics of acquisition of reinitiation-competence by post-termination ribosomes in the 5'UTR. Our data explain the destabilizing properties of YAP2-type uORFs and also support a more general model for the mode of action of other known uORFs, such as those in the GCN4 mRNA. (+info)
(6/1341) Distinct functions of eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF1A and eIF3 in the formation of the 40 S ribosomal preinitiation complex.
We have used an in vitro translation initiation assay to investigate the requirements for the efficient transfer of Met-tRNAf (as Met-tRNAf.eIF2.GTP ternary complex) to 40 S ribosomal subunits in the absence of mRNA (or an AUG codon) to form the 40 S preinitiation complex. We observed that the 17-kDa initiation factor eIF1A is necessary and sufficient to mediate nearly quantitative transfer of Met-tRNAf to isolated 40 S ribosomal subunits. However, the addition of 60 S ribosomal subunits to the 40 S preinitiation complex formed under these conditions disrupted the 40 S complex resulting in dissociation of Met-tRNAf from the 40 S subunit. When the eIF1A-dependent preinitiation reaction was carried out with 40 S ribosomal subunits that had been preincubated with eIF3, the 40 S preinitiation complex formed included bound eIF3 (40 S.eIF3. Met-tRNAf.eIF2.GTP). In contrast to the complex lacking eIF3, this complex was not disrupted by the addition of 60 S ribosomal subunits. These results suggest that in vivo, both eIF1A and eIF3 are required to form a stable 40 S preinitiation complex, eIF1A catalyzing the transfer of Met-tRNAf.eIF2.GTP to 40 S subunits, and eIF3 stabilizing the resulting complex and preventing its disruption by 60 S ribosomal subunits. (+info)
(7/1341) Induction of apoptosis by double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) involves the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 and NF-kappaB.
The double-stranded (ds) RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a key mediator of antiviral effects of interferon (IFN) and an active player in apoptosis induced by different stimuli. The translation initiation factor eIF-2alpha (alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2) and IkappaBalpha, the inhibitor of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, have been proposed as downstream mediators of PKR effects. To evaluate the involvement of NF-kappaB and eIF-2alpha in the induction of apoptosis by PKR, we have used vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants that inducibly express PKR concomitantly with a dominant negative mutant of eIF-2alpha or a repressor form of IkappaBalpha. We found that while expression of PKR by a VV vector resulted in extensive inhibition of protein synthesis and induction of apoptosis, coexpression of PKR with a dominant negative mutant of eIF-2alpha (Ser-51-->Ala) reversed both the PKR-mediated translational block and PKR-induced apoptosis. Coexpression of PKR with a repressor form of IkappaBalpha (Ser-32, 36-Ala) also leads to the inhibition of apoptosis by abolishing NF-kappaB induction, while translation remains blocked. Treating cells with two different proteasome inhibitors which block IkappaBalpha degradation, prevented PKR-induced apoptosis, supporting results from coexpression studies. Biochemical analysis and transient assays revealed that PKR expression by a VV vector induced NF-kappaB binding and transactivation. In addition, upregulation of Fas mRNA transcription occurred during PKR activation. Our findings provide direct evidence for the involvement of eIF-2alpha and NF-kappaB in the induction of apoptosis by PKR. (+info)
(8/1341) Inhibition of double-stranded RNA- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated apoptosis by tetratricopeptide repeat protein and cochaperone P58(IPK).
P58(IPK) is a tetratricopeptide repeat-containing cochaperone that is involved in stress-activated cellular pathways and that inhibits the activity of protein kinase PKR, a primary mediator of the antiviral and antiproliferative properties of interferon. To gain better insight into the molecular actions of P58(IPK), we generated NIH 3T3 cell lines expressing either wild-type P58(IPK) or a P58(IPK) deletion mutant, DeltaTPR6, that does not bind to or inhibit PKR. When treated with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), DeltaTPR6-expressing cells exhibited a significant increase in eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation, indicating a functional PKR. In contrast, both of these PKR-dependent events were blocked by the overexpression of wild-type P58(IPK). In addition, the P58(IPK) cell line, but not the DeltaTPR6 cell line, was resistant to dsRNA-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings demonstrate that P58(IPK) regulates dsRNA signaling pathways by inhibiting multiple PKR-dependent functions. In contrast, both the P58(IPK) and DeltaTPR6 cell lines were resistant to tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis, suggesting that P58(IPK) may function as a more general suppressor of programmed cell death independently of its PKR-inhibitory properties. In accordance with this hypothesis, although PKR remained active in DeltaTPR6-expressing cells, the DeltaTPR6 cell line displayed a transformed phenotype and was tumorigenic in nude mice. Thus, the antiapoptotic function of P58(IPK) may be an important factor in its ability to malignantly transform cells. (+info)