Effects of experimental exposure to triethylamine on vision and the eye.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of triethylamine (TEA) on the cornea and to evaluate the cause of blurred vision. To find the lowest observed effect concentration of exposure to TEA. METHODS: Four people were exposed to TEA for 4 hours at concentrations of 40.6, 6.5, and 3.0 mg/m3. Before and after every exposure, symptoms and ocular microscopy findings were recorded. Binocular visual acuity and contrast sensitivity at 2.5% contrast were also measured. Also, before and after the 40.6 mg/m3 exposure, corneal thickness was measured and ocular dimensions were recorded by ultrasonography, endothelial cells of the cornea were analysed, and serum and lacrimal specimens were collected for the analysis of TEA. RESULTS: After exposure to 40.6 mg/m3 TEA there was a marked oedema in the corneal epithelium and subepithelial microcysts. However, corneal thickness increased only minimally because of the epithelial oedema. The lacrimal concentrations of TEA were, on average (range) 41 (18-83) times higher than the serum TEA concentrations. The vision was blurred in all subjects and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity had decreased in three of the four subjects. After exposure to TEA at 6.5 mg/m3 two subjects experienced symptoms, and contrast sensitivity had decreased in three of the four subjects. There were no symptoms or decreases in contrast sensitivity after exposure to a TEA concentration of 3.0 mg/m3. CONCLUSIONS: TEA caused a marked oedema and microcysts in corneal epithelium but only minor increases in corneal thickness. The effects may be mediated by the lacrimal fluid owing to its high TEA concentration. Four hour exposure to a TEA concentration of 3.0 mg/m3 seemed to cause no effects, whereas exposure to 6.5 mg/m3 for the same period caused blurred vision and a decrease in contrast sensitivity. (+info)
Selective peroxisome degradation in Yarrowia lipolytica after a shift of cells from acetate/oleate/ethylamine into glucose/ammonium sulfate-containing media.
We have shown that peroxisomes of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica are subject to specific degradation after exposure of acetate/oleate-grown cells to glucose excess conditions. Electron microscopic analysis has revealed that the peroxisomes were degraded by uptake in the vacuole. Our results suggest that peroxisomes are taken up by macroautophagic processes, because sequestration of individual peroxisomes, which occurs typically at the beginning of microautophagy, was never observed. The observation that a peroxisomal amine oxidase activity is specifically induced by ethylamine was used for the development of a plate assay screening procedure to isolate peroxisome degradation-defective mutants. (+info)
The attenuation of learning impairments induced after exposure to CO or trimethyltin in mice by sigma (sigma) receptor ligands involves both sigma1 and sigma2 sites.
1. Sigma (sigma) receptor ligands were previously reported to alleviate learning and memory impairments on several pharmacological and pathological rodent models of amnesia. Such effect was demonstrated as involving the sigma1 subtype of sigma receptor. 2. In this study, we characterized the pharmacological effect mediated by sigma ligands on two lesional models of amnesia in mice: (1) the hypoxia-related learning and memory impairment model induced by repeated exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas; and (2) the intoxication with trimethyltin (1 mg kg(-1)). 3. The selective sigma1 ligand PRE-084 (1 mg kg(-1)) or the non-selective sigma1/sigma2 compounds DTG (0.1 mg kg(-1)), BD1008 (3 mg kg(-1)), and haloperidol (0.1 mg kg(-1)) reversed significantly the spontaneous alternation deficits observed 7 days after exposure to CO or 14 days after intoxication with trimethyltin. 4. The selective sigma1 receptor antagonist NE-100 (1 mg kg(-1)) was ineffective by itself, but blocked completely the PRE-084 effects, partially the DTG effects, and did not affect the effects induced by BD1008 or haloperidol. 5. A similar pharmacological profile was observed in the step-down type passive avoidance test performed 8 days after exposure to CO. 6. These results show that, in contrast to the previously reported amnesia models, the impairments induced after exposure to CO or intoxication with trimethyltin could be alleviated not only by sigma1 receptor agonists but also by sigma2 agonists. The particular pattern of neurodegeneration observed in these lesional models may explain these differences. (+info)
Changes in collagenases and TGF-beta precede structural alterations in a model of chronic renal fibrosis.
BACKGROUND: To study the role of collagenases and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the genesis of interstitial fibrosis, we used the model of bromoethylamine (BEA)-induced papillary necrosis, which is known to lead over a period of 1 to 12 months to interstitial fibrosis and renal insufficiency. METHODS: Rats were injected with BEA, and urine and kidney tissue (cortex and medulla) were collected after 1, 2, 3, 7, and 30 days. One kidney was perfused and fixed for morphological studies and immunostained for collagen type I, III, and IV. The other kidney was used to prepare cortex and medulla extracts for gelatinases (by fluorometric and zymographic techniques), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-2 (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) and TGF-beta1 (by ELISA). RESULTS: Albuminuria and interstitial fibrosis were present in BEA rats by day 7, which continued until day 30. Immunocytochemical staining for collagen types showed that collagen III and IV increased in the interstitium by day 30, but collagen I remained unchanged. Gelatinase activity in the medulla decreased by 57% compared with control by day 2 and remained low until day 30. In the cortex, gelatinase activity remained unchanged between 0 and 7 days after BEA but decreased by 72% by day 30. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were decreased by 80% compared with day 0 in both the medulla (by day 1) and cortex (by day 2) and remained low up to day 30. TGF-beta1 immunoreactivity increased progressively until day 2 in the medulla (16-fold higher than control) and day 3 in the cortex (8-fold higher than control) and returned to control level by day 3 in the medulla and by day 30 in the cortex. Two days after BEA injection, the mRNA for TGF-beta1 was increased eightfold in the cortex and 12-fold in the medulla, and it remained high for up to 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: The fibrosis that follows papillary necrosis is associated with both high TGF-beta1 expression and depressed gelatinolytic activity. (+info)
Human gamma delta T cells recognize alkylamines derived from microbes, edible plants, and tea: implications for innate immunity.
Approximately 4% of peripheral blood T cells in humans express a T cell receptor with markedly restricted germline gene segment usage (V gamma 2 V delta 2). Remarkably, these T cells expand 2- to 10-fold (8%-60% of all circulating T cells) during many microbial infections. We show here that these T cells recognize a family of naturally occurring primary alkylamines in a TCR-dependent manner. These antigenic alkylamines are secreted to millimolar concentrations in bacterial supernatants and are found in certain edible plants. Given the large numbers of memory V gamma 2 V delta 2 T cells in adult humans, recognition of alkylamine antigens offers the immune system a response of the magnitude of major superantigens for alpha beta T cells and may bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immunity. (+info)
A new approach to empirical intermolecular and conformational potential energy functions. II. Applications to crystal packing, rotational barriers, and conformational analysis.
An empirical potential energy function based on the interactions of electrons and nuclei (EPEN) has been tested on molecules other than those used for its parameterization. The results indicate that this energy function is able to predict reliably the lowest energy conformations, the potential energy differences between conformations, rotational barrier heights, and dipole moments for a series of alkanes, amines, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Crystal packing studies on n-hexane, n-octane, methylamine, methanol, and alpha-d-glucose, using this same potential, indicate that it is also reliable for calculating intermolecular interaction energies and low-energy orientations. (+info)
Cryopreservation reduces the ability of hamster 2-cell embryos to regulate intracellular pH.
Vitrification of hamster 2-cell embryos impairs the activity of both the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-) exchanger; the two transport proteins responsible for the regulation of intracellular pH (pHi). The activities of both the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-) exchanger were significantly reduced at 4 h following warming compared to freshly collected embryos. Normal levels of activity of both transporters were not restored until 6 h after warming. Thus, cryopreservation of cleavage stage hamster embryos has a detrimental effect on their ability to maintain intracellular ionic homeostasis. Impairment of these pHi regulatory proteins resulted in the pHi of embryos being significantly elevated from the control values of 1.2 to 7.35 for approximately 4 h after warming. In addition, an elevated pHi value significantly impaired oxidative metabolism. Therefore, the loss in developmental competence of embryos following cryopreservation may in part be explained by a reduced ability to regulate intracellular pH that results in perturbations in metabolism and disruption of energy production. (+info)
GCD quantitation of opiates as propionyl derivatives in blood.
We describe a method using a gas chromatograph with electron ionization detection (GCD) for the simultaneous determination of morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, ethylmorphine, and dihydrocodeine in blood. The method employs propionic anhydride in the presence of triethylamine to propionylate free hydroxyl groups of the opiates in blood. The quantitation is achieved by using GCD with selected ion monitoring of the two most characteristic ions for each analyte. The quantitation limit was 0.01 mg/L and the linearity was 0.01-10 mg/L for dihydrocodeine, ethylmorphine, and 6-monoacetylmorphine. For the other investigated opiates, the quantitation limit was 0.025 mg/L and linearity was 0.025-10 mg/L. The intraday relative standard deviation (RSD) varied from 7.2 to 10% at the 0.5 mg/L level, and the day-to-day RSDs varied from 7.5 to 11% at the 0.85 mg/L level. (+info)