Pneumocephalus associated with ethmoidal sinus osteoma--case report.
A 35-year-old female suffered sudden onset of severe headache upon blowing her nose. No rhinorrhea or signs of meningeal irritation were noted. Computed tomography (CT) with bone windows clearly delineated a bony mass in the right ethmoid sinus, extending into the orbit and intracranially. Conventional CT demonstrated multiple air bubbles in the cisterns and around the mass in the right frontal skull base, suggesting that the mass was associated with entry of the air bubbles into the cranial cavity. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a low-signal lesion that appeared to be an osteoma but did not show any air bubbles. Through a wide bilateral frontal craniotomy, the cauliflower-like osteoma was found to be protruding intracranially through the skull base and the overlying dura mater. The osteoma was removed, and the dural defect was covered with a fascia graft. Histological examination confirmed that the lesion was an osteoma. The operative procedure resolved the problem of air entry. CT is superior to MR imaging for diagnosing pneumocephalus, by providing a better assessment of bony destruction and better detection of small amounts of intracranial air. (+info)
IL-12 receptor beta2 and CD30 expression in paranasal sinus mucosa of patients with chronic sinusitis.
The aetiology of chronic sinusitis is still poorly understood. The expression of T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) cell markers, interleukin (IL)-12 receptor beta2 subunit (IL-12Rbeta2) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and CD30, respectively, were investigated in the paranasal sinus mucosa of patients with chronic sinusitis in an attempt to elucidate the involvement of Th1 and Th2 cells in this disease. Anterior ethmoidal mucosae were surgically obtained from two groups of patients with chronic sinusitis: those who had allergic rhinitis (allergic group, n=11) and those without allergy (nonallergic group, n=11). IL-12Rbeta2 mRNA was quantified by means of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and CD30-positive cells were examined immunohistochemically. Both IL-12Rbeta2 mRNA and CD30 were expressed in the sinus mucosa of the allergic and nonallergic groups. The proportion of mononuclear cells which were CD30-positive in the sinus mucosa was significantly greater in the allergic than in the nonallergic group. The expression levels of IL-12Rbeta2 mRNA were virtually equivalent in both groups. These results suggest a T-helper 2-dominated mucosal reaction in the allergic compared to the nonallergic group, and indicate T-helper 1 activity in the sinus mucosa of both groups. The ubiquity of T-helper 1 cells suggests that they play a role in maintaining local mucosal defences against foreign antigens, which continually enter the upper respiratory tract. (+info)
A case of optic neuropathy treated by percutaneous trans-coronary angiography.
There are many risk factors involved in the development of ischemic optic neuropathy such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and vascular incompetence. Therefore, the treatment of ischemic optic neuropathy should not be solely based on proper diagnosis but should also involve a thorough and systemic investigation to identify those multifactorial possibilities, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. We report upon a patient who developed non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy following treatment of a sphenoethmoid mucocele, which lead to recovered vision and a satisfactory improvement of visual field defects, after percutaneous trans-coronary angiography with stent insertion of the coronary arteries. (+info)
Sinusitis demonstrated by brain scanning.
Increased concentration of technietum was noted in the region of the frontal, ethmoidal, and maxillary sinuses of two patients. Radiographs of the sinuses revealed extensive sinusitis involving the sinuses in the area of increased uptake. The increased uptake was attributed to the sinusitis. (+info)
Naso-ethmoid schwannoma with intracranial extension: case report.
Intranasal schwannomas are rare lesions, specially when they present with an intracranial extension. The fifth case in the medical literature of a naso-ethmoid schwannoma with extension into the anterior cranial fossa is presented. The magnetic resonance findings and the details of the combined intracranial / transfacial operative approach used are described. The possible origin and the clinical characteristics of this rare lesion are reviewed. (+info)
Infrasellar craniopharyngioma: case report.
We report a case of infrasellar craniopharyngioma in a 34 year-old woman who presented with progressive headache and diplopia. Computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous tumor originating from the sphenoid bone with ethmoid sinus and sella turcica extension. A sublabial rhinoseptal transsphenoidal surgery was performed. Craniopharyngiomas with infrasellar development are very rare. Infrasellar craniopharyngioma is uncommon, thirty-five cases has been reported in literature. The embryology, clinical features and radiographic investigation of these tumors are discussed. (+info)
Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy after combined ophthalmic artery embolization and craniofacial surgery--case report.
A 57-year-old man developed visual loss following craniofacial surgery for an inflammatory ethmoidal sinus mass. Surgery was preceded by endovascular occlusion of the ophthalmic artery distal to central retinal artery (CRA). Routine angiography obtained immediately after endovascular ophthalmic artery occlusion showed patency of the CRA. He complained of visual loss one day after craniofacial surgery (2 days after embolization). Repeat emergency angiography confirmed the patent CRA. Ophthalmic examination and fluorescein angiography showed that the visual loss was due to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). Preservation of the CRA is critical during ophthalmic artery embolization to avoid visual complications. Neurosurgeons should be aware of the possibility of AION as a complication of ophthalmic artery embolization. (+info)
A prospective, multicentre study of moxifloxacin concentrations in the sinus mucosa tissue of patients undergoing elective surgery of the sinus.
A pharmacokinetic study was carried out to determine moxifloxacin concentrations in sinus tissue, after oral moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily for 5 days to patients with chronic sinusitis, undergoing elective sinus surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of seven treatment groups, in which tissues were sampled 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24 or 36 h post-dose. A control group with non-infected nasal polyps was also included. Forty-eight patients (13 female, 35 male, mean age 47.1 years) were allocated to one of each active treatment group (n = 42) or to the control group (n = 6). Tissue and plasma samples were taken simultaneously and stored frozen until assayed by HPLC. Thirty-nine patients were fully valid for pharmacokinetic analysis. The geometric mean moxifloxacin plasma concentration increased from 2.32 mg/L at 2 h to a maximum of 3.37 mg/L at 4 h post-dose, decreasing to 0.37 mg/L at 36 h post-dose. The moxifloxacin concentration in sinus mucosa was consistently greater than that in plasma being 4.56-5.73 mg/kg from 2 to 6 h and 2.81-1.25 mg/kg from 12 to 36 h post-dose. The elimination rates in plasma and sinus tissues were similar. The tissue/plasma ratio was c. 200% between 2 and 6 h, and up to 328.9% at 36 h. Results were similar whatever the site of tissue sampling (maxillary sinus, anterior ethmoid sinus or nasal polyps). Tissue levels exceeded the MIC(90) of all pathogens commonly causing acute sinusitis (e.g. 5-30 x MIC for Streptococcus pneumoniae: 0.25 mg/L). These results sup-port the use of moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily as a regimen for the treatment of sinus infections. (+info)