Clinical algorithm for malaria during low and high transmission seasons.
(9/1130)OBJECTIVES: To assess the proportion of children with febrile disease who suffer from malaria and to identify clinical signs and symptoms that predict malaria during low and high transmission seasons. STUDY DESIGN: 2490 children aged 2 to 59 months presenting to a health centre in rural Ethiopia with fever had their history documented and the following investigations: clinical examination, diagnosis, haemoglobin measurement, and a blood smear for malaria parasites. Clinical findings were related to the presence of malaria parasitaemia. RESULTS: Malaria contributed to 5.9% of all febrile cases from January to April and to 30.3% during the rest of the year. Prediction of malaria was improved by simple combinations of a few signs and symptoms. Fever with a history of previous malarial attack or absence of cough or a finding of pallor gave a sensitivity of 83% in the high risk season and 75% in the low risk season, with corresponding specificities of 51% and 60%; fever with a previous malaria attack or pallor or splenomegaly had sensitivities of 80% and 69% and specificities of 65% and 81% in high and low risk settings, respectively. CONCLUSION: Better clinical definitions are possible for low malaria settings when microscopic examination cannot be done. Health workers should be trained to detect pallor and splenomegaly because these two signs improve the specificity for malaria. (+info)
Environmental management for vector control.(10/1130) Is it worth a dam if it worsens malaria?
Incidence of malaria among children living near dams in northern Ethiopia: community based incidence survey.
(11/1130)OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of construction of microdams on the incidence of malaria in nearby communities in terms of possibly increasing peak incidence and prolonging transmission. DESIGN: Four quarterly cycles of malaria incidence surveys, each taking 30 days, undertaken in eight at risk communities close to dams paired with eight control villages at similar altitudes but beyond flight range of mosquitoes. SETTING: Tigray region in northern Ethiopia at altitudes of 1800 to 2225 m. SUBJECTS: About 7000 children under 10 years living in villages within 3 km of microdams and in control villages 8-10 km distant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of malaria in both communities. RESULTS: Overall incidence of malaria for the villages close to dams was 14.0 episodes/1000 child months at risk compared with 1.9 in the control villages-a sevenfold ratio. Incidence was significantly higher in both communities at altitudes below 1900 m. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for attention to be given to health issues in the implementation of ecological and environmental development programmes, specifically for appropriate malaria control measures to counteract the increased risks near these dams. (+info)
Helicobacter pylori in immigrants from East Africa.
(12/1130)This study determines the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in a group of immigrants from East Africa with dyspepsia symptoms. Costs of treatment (including financial costs, adverse effects of treatment, and complexity of care) are compared for empiric treatment and treatment guided by serologic testing. Of the symptomatic patients, 93% had H. pylori antibodies. Empiric treatment of all patients with dyspepsia could reduce the cost of care by approximately half, with minimal risk to uninfected patients. (+info)
Low levels of serum calcidiol in an African population compared to a North European population.
(13/1130)OBJECTIVE: To compare vitamin D status in an African population living at 10 degrees N with a Norwegian population living at 60 degrees N. DESIGN: Serum samples from 30 healthy young Ethiopians and 31 full term pregnant women from Addis Ababa were collected in September, and from 24 healthy Norwegians in March and 23 pregnant women from Oslo in February to June. METHODS: Serum (s) levels of calcidiol and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured. RESULTS: The median values for s-calcidiol were significantly lower in Ethiopians compared with Norwegians (young Ethiopians 23.5nmol/l vs young Norwegians 81nmol/l, P<0.001; pregnant Ethiopians 25nmol/l vs pregnant Norwegians 36nmol/l, P<0.05) while those for s-iPTH were significantly higher (young Ethiopians 5.7pmol/l vs young Norwegians 2.4pmol/l, P<0.001; pregnant Ethiopians 4.8pmol/l vs pregnant Norwegians 2.8pmol/l, P<0.02). CONCLUSION: In spite of abundant availability of ultraviolet radiation, the population from Addis Ababa had a high rate of biochemical vitamin D deficiency compared with the Norwegian group. (+info)
Quality of vaccination services and social demand for vaccinations in Africa and Asia.
(14/1130)For immunization to be effective in the long run as a major global disease control intervention it is important to provide good quality vaccination services. Studies carried out in three countries in Asia (Bangladesh, India, and the Philippines) and two countries in Africa (Ethiopia and Malawi), and reported on in this article, document the fact that parents are willing to invest considerable effort in having their children vaccinated; however, there are a number of serious shortcomings in the quality of the routine vaccination services and strains are apparent at the interface between the vaccination providers and the users. These shortcomings are detracting from the sustainability of routine vaccination programmes and are promoting the growth of pools of nonimmunized and partially immunized children. To safeguard the continued operation and to enhance the coverage of routine vaccination programmes it is crucial that these difficulties be addressed. (+info)
Illness and treatment perceptions of Ethiopian immigrants and their doctors in Israel.
(15/1130)OBJECTIVES: Patient-provider misunderstandings arising from disparate medical and cultural concepts can impede health care among immigrant populations. This study assessed the extent of disagreement and identified the salient problems of communication between Israeli doctors and Ethiopian immigrant patients. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 59 Ethiopian immigrants. Self-reports of health status and effectiveness of treatment were compared with evaluations by the primary care physician and supplemented by qualitative data from descriptions of illness, observations of medical visits, informant interviews, and participant observations conducted by the anthropologist. RESULTS: Health status and effectiveness of treatment were rated significantly higher by the doctor than by the patients. Low doctor-patient agreement occurred mainly for illnesses with stress-related or culture-specific associations. Qualitative data suggested that more long-term immigrants may alter their expectations of treatment but continue to experience symptoms that are culturally, but not biomedically, meaningful. CONCLUSIONS: Misunderstandings between immigrant patients and their doctors emerge from the biomedical system's limitations in addressing stress-related illnesses and from culture-based discrepancies in concepts of illness and healing. Including trained translators in medical teams can reduce medical misunderstandings and increase patient satisfaction among immigrant populations. (+info)
Recombinant human interleukin-10 fails to alter proinflammatory cytokine production or physiologic changes associated with the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction.
(16/1130)Interleukin (IL)-10 may have a role in the treatment of cytokine-associated inflammatory syndromes. The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (J-HR), which follows antibiotic treatment of Borrelia recurrentis infection, is a useful model of acute systemic inflammation associated with a cytokine surge and characteristic pathophysiologic changes. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 49 Ethiopian men with B. recurrentis infection were randomized to receive a single intravenous bolus of either 25 microg/kg of recombinant human (rh) IL-10 or vehicle control shortly before receiving intramuscular penicillin. Patients were monitored for physiologic changes, and plasma samples were taken repeatedly for 24 h after treatment. rhIL-10 had no impact on changes in any of the physiologic parameters of J-HR, plasma cytokine levels, or the rate of spirochete clearance. A single intravenous bolus of 25 microgram/kg of rhIL-10 does not seem to have a useful role in the treatment of the J-HR associated with B. recurrentis infection. (+info)