Pesticide sprayers' knowledge, attitude and practice of pesticide use on agricultural farms of Ethiopia. (65/1130)

Pesticide sprayers from five state-owned agricultural farms took part in a study that evaluated their knowledge, attitude and practice of pesticide use on farms. Demographic features of the sprayers showed that the majority of them had primary-level education. The duration of work as sprayers on the farms ranged from 1 month to approximately 10 years, with 59% of them having worked as sprayers for <5 years. Their knowledge about hazards from pesticides was indicated by the responses they gave to the standard questionnaire. Careful working was considered to be very important by 93% of them, while only 7% suggested the use of personal protective devices (PPD). On some of the farms, sprayers were provided with inappropriate/unfit and worn-out PPD; 18% of the sprayers had unfit goggles and 29% used worn-out gloves. To minimize risk from pesticide application, 63% suggested avoiding applications during windy and sunny weather, 32% suggested the provision and proper use of PPD, while only 3% of them felt medical check-ups and training were important, and 2% suggested risks from spraying were best controlled by leaving their job. The hygiene and sanitation practices of the sprayers require much improvement. An attitudinal change is needed, together with the provision of better facilities and infrastructure. We recommend that pesticide safety education be given to the sprayers. In addition, appropriate PPD should be used, with regular maintenance and timely replacement of worn-out parts.  (+info)

Gender, literacy, and survival among Ethiopian adults, 1987 - 96. (66/1130)

OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships between gender, literacy and survival among adults in Meskan and Mareko district, Ethiopia. METHODS: On the basis of an established demographic surveillance system, an open-cohort analysis of 172726 person-years covering the period January 1987 to December 1996 was conducted in 10 randomly selected local communities. FINDINGS: The crude mortality rate was 11.2 per 1000 person-years among adults aged > or =15 years; the values for males and females were 11.9 and 10.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Kaplan - Meier estimates showed that literacy and being female were both favourable for survival throughout adulthood. Cox's regression models showed that age, gender, literacy and area (rural lowland, rural highland and urban) were significant factors in survival: younger, female, literate urban dwellers were the most favoured. Gender differences in mortality were small in the rural areas, possibly because of the harsh living conditions and the marginalization of women. Literacy was a more significant factor for survival in the rural areas, where mortality was highest, while gender was more important in the one urban area studied. The levels of literacy were lowest among rural females. CONCLUSION: Special attention should be given to raising literacy levels among rural women with a view to improving their survival.  (+info)

Identification of the causative organism of tuberculous lymphadenitis in ethiopia by PCR. (67/1130)

Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with multiple differential diagnoses. Demonstration of the etiologic agent by smear microscopy or culture of fine needle aspirate (FNA) specimens is often unsuccessful. FNA specimens from 40 patients presenting at a rural health center in South Ethiopia and diagnosed as positive for TBLN on the basis of clinical and cytological criteria were analyzed for mycobacterial DNA by PCR. Thirty (75%) had cervical lymphadenitis and 11 (27.5%) were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Three primer sets were initially used to identify the causative agent at the genus (antigen 85 complex), complex (IS6110 insertion sequence), and species (pncA gene and allelic variation) levels. Among the forty TBLN cases, 35 (87.5%) were positive by PCR at the genus and complex levels. Based on PCR for detection of allelic variation at position 169, 24 (68.6%) of the 35 were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6 (17.1%) were positive for M. bovis. These six were positive in additional PCR assays using the JB21-JB22 primer set, which is highly specific for M. bovis. Five (14.1%) showed amplification for both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis with the allele-specific primer set. Cooccurrence of pyrazinamide (PZA)-sensitive and -resistant M. tuberculosis in those five cases was indicated, since all were negative in assays with the JB21-JB22 primer set. This feature was seen in 3 of 11 HIV-positive and 2 of 29 HIV-negative individuals (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: among 35 PCR-positive cases of TBLN from southern Ethiopia, 29 (82.9%) were caused by M. tuberculosis and six (17.1%) were caused by M. bovis.  (+info)

Study on Histoplasmosis (epizootic lymphangitis) in cart-horses in Ethiopia. (68/1130)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Histoplasma farciminosum in 2,907 carthorses using clinical and microbiological examinations at three towns (Debre Zeit, Mojo and Nazareth), Central Ethiopia, between December 1999 and January 2001. An overall prevalence of 26.2% (762/2,907) was recorded; the highest prevalence (39.1%) being recorded at Mojo whereas the lowest (21.1%) was recorded at Nazareth. The difference in prevalence among the three towns was highly significant (chi(2) = 76.92, P<0.0001). Carthorses found at Mojo [OR =2.4, CI=(1.9-3.0), P<0.0001] and Debre Zeit [OR=1.9, CI=(1.5-2.3), P<0.0001] were at higher risk of infection than those found at Nazareth. The mycelial and yeast forms of the Histoplasma capsulatum variety farciminosum were isolated on the Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The results of the present study showed the rampant occurrence of histoplasmosis farciminosi at the three towns and indicates the need for further nationwide investigation into the disease to design sound control strategy.  (+info)

An Ethiopian pattern of human adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia. (69/1130)

We describe, in Ethiopia, a third successful pattern of human adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia that contrasts with both the Andean "classic" (erythrocytosis with arterial hypoxemia) and the more recently identified Tibetan (normal venous hemoglobin concentration with arterial hypoxemia) patterns. A field survey of 236 Ethiopian native residents at 3,530 m (11,650 feet), 14-86 years of age, without evidence of iron deficiency, hemoglobinopathy, or chronic inflammation, found an average hemoglobin concentration of 15.9 and 15.0 gdl for males and females, respectively, and an average oxygen saturation of hemoglobin of 95.3%. Thus, Ethiopian highlanders maintain venous hemoglobin concentrations and arterial oxygen saturation within the ranges of sea level populations, despite the unavoidable, universal decrease in the ambient oxygen tension at high altitude.  (+info)

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan, January 2001-October 2002. (70/1130)

Since the World Health Assembly resolved in May 1988 to eradicate poliomyelitis, the estimated number of polio cases globally has declined >99%. The number of countries in which polio was estimated to be endemic decreased from 125 in 1988 to 10 in 2001, and three World Health Organization (WHO) regions (American, European, and Western Pacific) comprising approximately 55% of the world's population have been certified polio-free. Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan have achieved the lowest levels of poliovirus circulation since the polio eradication initiative began and are approaching interruption of transmission. This report describes intensified polio eradication activities in these countries during January 2001-October 2002, summarizes progress made, and highlights remaining challenges. Continued political commitment and financial support will be required to eradicate polio in these countries.  (+info)

Role of incidental and/or cured intestinal parasitic infections on profile of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets and activation status in HIV-1 infected and uninfected adult Ethiopians. (71/1130)

Intestinal parasitic infections have been suggested to cause persistent immune activation leading to an unbalanced immune state. Such a state has been proposed to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of AIDS in an African context. The present study investigated the effect of incidental parasitic infection and treatment on the profile of T cell differentiation and activation markers on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from HIV-1 infected and uninfected adult Ethiopians. Cryopreserved PBMCs from 64 subjects (41 HIV-negative and 23 HIV-positive) with follow-up visits at 6-monthly intervals were used to compare the effect of incidental intestinal parasites and their treatment upon T cell subset profiles and activation status. The samples were stained with antibodies to various T cell differentiation and activation markers allowing naive, memory, effector, memory/effector, activated and resting CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets to be quantified by triple-colour FACScan. Incidental intestinal parasitic infections resulted in a significant increase in memory CD4+ T cell numbers both in HIV-negative and HIV-positive subjects (P < 0.05). There was also a significant increase in the percentage of CD8+ HLA-DR+ T cells (P < 0.05) in HIV-positive subjects co-infected with parasites. In HIV-negative subjects, a significant decline in activated cells and a significant increase in resting CD8+ T cells (P < 0.05) was observed after treatment for parasites. These data suggest that intestinal parasitic infections could result in the alteration of T cell subset counts and also in the up-regulation of T cell activation markers in peripheral blood. Treatment of parasitic infections showed a tendency to reduce the activation suggesting that, together with other community based intervention strategies, such treatment could be used to down-regulate immune activation and hence protect the host from being easily attacked by HIV.  (+info)

Arginine as an adjuvant to chemotherapy improves clinical outcome in active tuberculosis. (72/1130)

Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the host defence against tuberculosis (TB). Patients with TB exhibit increased catabolism and reduced energy intake. Thus the hypothesis for this study was that restoring a relative deficiency in the amino acid arginine, the substrate for mycobactericidal NO production, would improve the clinical outcome of TB by increasing NO production. In a randomised double-blind study, patients with smear-positive TB (n = 120) were given arginine or placebo for 4 weeks in addition to conventional chemotherapy. Primary outcomes were sputum conversion, weight gain, and clinical symptoms after week 8. Secondary outcomes were sedimentation rate and levels of NO metabolites, arginine, citrulline, and tumour necrosis factor-a. Compared with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-/TB+ placebo group, the HIV-/TB+ patients in the arginine group showed significant improvement, defined as increased weight gain, higher sputum conversion rate and faster reduction of symptoms, such as cough. The arginine level increased after week 2 in the HIV-/TB+ arginine group (100.2 microM (range 90.5-109.9) versus 142.1 microM (range 114.1-170.1)) compared with the HIV-/TB+ placebo group (105.5 microM (range 93.7-117.3) versus 95.7 microM (range 82.4-108.9)). HIV seroprevalence was 52.5%. No clinical improvement or increase in serum arginine was detected in arginine supplemented HIV+/TB+ patients compared with placebo. Arginine is beneficial as an adjuvant treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with active tuberculosis, most likely mediated by increased production of nitric oxide.  (+info)