Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, and Nigeria, January 2000-July 2001. (41/1130)

In 1988, the World Health Assembly, governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO), resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by 2000. In the African Region (AFR), WHO member countries began to implement polio eradication strategies in 1995. Although rapid progress has occurred in much of eastern and southern Africa, wild poliovirus transmission continues to occur in four priority countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo), Ethiopia, and Nigeria. This report summarizes progress toward polio eradication in Angola, DR Congo, Ethiopia, and Nigeria during January 2000-July 2001, and indicates that 11 of 12 cases of wild poliovirus in AFR were identified in these priority countries during January-July 2001.  (+info)

Genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2C9 in a Caucasian and a black African population. (42/1130)

AIMS: CYP2C9 is a major enzyme in human drug metabolism and the polymorphism observed in the corresponding gene may affect the therapeutic outcome during treatment with several drugs. The distribution of variant CYP2C9 alleles was therefore investigated in an Italian and an Ethiopian population. METHODS: Allele-specific PCR analysis was carried out in order to determine the frequencies of the two most common variant alleles, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 in genomic DNA isolated from 157 Italians and 150 Ethiopians. RESULTS: The frequencies of CYP2C9*1 (80%), CYP2C9*2 (11%) and CYP2C9*3 (9%) found in the Italian population were similar to other Caucasian groups. However in the Ethiopian population CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 were present at a frequency of 94, 4 and 2% respectively. The 95% confidence intervals in CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 between Italians and Ethiopians were 0.098, 0.176, 0.040, 0.098 and 0.040, 0.098, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the Ethiopian population has a unique relative distribution of the CYP2C9 alleles, which is not similar to any other ethnic group hitherto described.  (+info)

Distribution of lymphocyte subsets in healthy human immunodeficiency virus-negative adult Ethiopians from two geographic locales. (43/1130)

Immunological values for 562 factory workers from Wonji, Ethiopia, a sugar estate 114 km southeast of the capital city, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, were compared to values for 218 subjects from Akaki, Ethiopia, a suburb of Addis Ababa, for whom partial data were previously published. The following markers were measured: lymphocytes, T cells, B cells, NK cells, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells. A more in depth comparison was also made between Akaki and Wonji subjects. For this purpose, various differentiation and activation marker (CD45RA, CD27, HLA-DR, and CD38) expressions on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were studied in 60 male, human immunodeficiency virus-negative subjects (30 from each site). Data were also compared with Dutch blood donor control values. The results confirmed that Ethiopians have significantly decreased CD4(+) T-cell counts and highly activated immune status, independent of the geographic locale studied. They also showed that male subjects from Akaki have significantly higher CD8(+) T-cell counts, resulting in a proportional increase in each of the CD8(+) T-cell compartments studied: naive (CD45RA(+)CD27(+)), memory (CD45RA(-)CD27(+)), cytotoxic effector (CD45RA(+)CD27(-)), memory/effector (CD45RA(-)CD27(-)), activated (HLA-DR(+)CD38(+)), and resting (HLA-DR(-)CD38(-)). No expansion of a specific functional subset was observed. Endemic infection or higher immune activation is thus not a likely cause of the higher CD8 counts in the Akaki subjects. The data confirm and extend earlier observations and suggest that, although most lymphocyte subsets are comparable between the two geographical locales, there are also differences. Thus, care should be taken in extrapolating immunological reference values from one population group to another.  (+info)

Medical relief operation in rural northern Ethiopia: addressing an ongoing disaster. (44/1130)

BACKGROUND: Following the recent drought in Ethiopia, the Jewish Agency, aided by the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, launched a medical relief mission to a rural district in Ethiopia in May-August 2000. OBJECTIVES: To present the current medical needs and deficiencies in this representative region of Central Africa, to describe the mission's mode of operation, and to propose alternative operative modes. METHODS: We critically evaluate the current local needs and existing medical system, retrospectively analyze the mission's work and the patients' characteristics, and summarize a panel discussion of all participants and organizers regarding potential alternative operative modes. RESULTS: An ongoing medical disaster exists in Ethiopia, resulting from the burden of morbidity, an inadequate health budget, and insufficient medical personnel, facilities and supplies. The mission operated a mobile outreach clinic for 3 months, providing primary care to 2,500 patients at an estimated cost of $48 per patient. Frequent clinical diagnoses included gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections, skin and ocular diseases (particularly trachoma), sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, tuberculosis, intestinal parasitosis, malnutrition and malaria. CONCLUSIONS: This type of operation is feasible but its overall impact is marginal and temporary. Potential alternative models of providing medical support under such circumstances are outlined.  (+info)

Ethiopians and Khoisan share the deepest clades of the human Y-chromosome phylogeny. (45/1130)

The genetic structure of 126 Ethiopian and 139 Senegalese Y chromosomes was investigated by a hierarchical analysis of 30 diagnostic biallelic markers selected from the worldwide Y-chromosome genealogy. The present study reveals that (1) only the Ethiopians share with the Khoisan the deepest human Y-chromosome clades (the African-specific Groups I and II) but with a repertoire of very different haplotypes; (2) most of the Ethiopians and virtually all the Senegalese belong to Group III, whose precursor is believed to be involved in the first migration out of Africa; and (3) the Ethiopian Y chromosomes that fall into Groups VI, VIII, and IX may be explained by back migrations from Asia. The first observation confirms the ancestral affinity between the Ethiopians and the Khoisan, which has previously been suggested by both archaeological and genetic findings.  (+info)

Health and disease in rural Ethiopia. (46/1130)

Ethiopia, among the world's poorest countries, suffers from a full spectrum of health problems. A plastic surgeon and a public health physician present their experiences in Sidamo province in the Rift Valley.  (+info)

Indeterminate human immunodeficiency virus Western blot profiles in ethiopians with discordant screening-assay results. (47/1130)

The Western blot (WB) assay is the most widely accepted confirmatory assay for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, indeterminate WB reactivity to HIV-1 proteins may occur in individuals who do not appear to be infected with HIV. The profiles of WB reactivity among Ethiopians are hardly known. Here, we describe the profiles of indeterminate WB reactivity in Ethiopians with discordant screening assays. Between 1996 and 2000, a total of 12,124 specimens were tested for HIV-1 antibodies. Overall, 1,437 (11.9%) were positive for HIV-1 antibody. Ninety-one ( approximately 0.8%) gave equivocal results because of discordant results among the various screening assays and indeterminate WB profiles by the American Red Cross (ARC) criteria. Most (30.4%) of these indeterminate WB results were due to p24 reactivity. However, 12 samples (13.2%) displayed reactivity to p24 and gp41 or to p24 and gp120/160 proteins (positive by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] criteria). Only two samples (2.2%) were reactive to both env glycoproteins gp41 and gp120/160 (positive by the World Health Organization [WHO] criteria). Of 31 WB assays initially indeterminate by the ARC criteria and with follow-up samples, 29 (93.5%) became negative when retested subsequently while 2 (6.5%) remained indeterminate for more than a year and were thus considered negative. Using CDC and WHO criteria, 6 (19.4%) and 2 (6.5%), respectively, of these WB assays would have been considered falsely positive. In addition, 17 indeterminate samples were negative when assessed by a nucleic acid-based amplification assay for HIV-1 viremia. In general, there was 97.8% concordance between the ARC and WHO criteria and 85.7% concordance between the ARC and CDC criteria for an indeterminate WB result. The ARC criteria best met the specified objectives for diagnosis in our setting.  (+info)

Ethiopian parents' perception of their children's health: a focus group study of immigrants to Israel. (48/1130)

BACKGROUND: The recent influx of Ethiopian immigrants to Israel has created challenges for healthcare workers. Qualitative research methods have proven to be of value in providing useful data in cross-cultural medical settings. OBJECTIVE: To learn about Ethiopian immigrants' perception of the health of their children. METHODS: Ethiopian parents of children under age 3 registered with a family medicine clinic in Jerusalem were invited to participate in two focus groups. Transcripts of the group discussions were analyzed to reveal themes relating to children's health. RESULTS: Analysis of the transcripts revealed five themes relating to the health of children in two domains: the intra-familial and the extra-familial. Specific themes that emerged in the intra-familial domain were the role of traditional medicine, gender-specific roles in child care, and decision-making in seeking extra-familial medical help. Themes in the extra-familial domain were recognition of illness and the meaning of symptoms, and notions of prevention and resistance to illness. The collected data found application in the daily clinical work of the researchers and enriched understanding of their patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ethiopian immigrants to Israel share special perceptions of their children's health that differ from prevailing beliefs in Israel. Focus groups provide health workers with a wealth of data on these beliefs that will enable them to offer more culturally sensitive care.  (+info)