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(1/1130) Enterotoxin-producing bacteria and parasites in stools of Ethiopian children with diarrhoeal disease.

Enterotoxinogenic bacteria were isolated from 131 (37%) of 354 Ethiopian infants and children with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. Only one of these isolates belonged to the classical enteropathogenic serotypes of Esch. coli. Two colonies from each patient were isolated and tested for production of enterotoxin by the rabbit ileal loop test, the rabbit skin test, and an adrenal cell assay. However, only 38% of the isolated enterotoxinogenic strains were Esch. coli; the others belonged to Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Citrobacter, Serratia, and Aeromonas. In 18 patients both isolates were toxinogenic and belonged to different species. The incidence of intestinal parasites was 35% with no apparent correlation to the occurrence of toxinogenic bacteria in the stools.  (+info)

(2/1130) Health policy development in wartime: establishing the Baito health system in Tigray, Ethiopia.

This paper documents health experiences and the public health activities of the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF). The paper provides background data about Tigray and the emergence of its struggle for a democratic Ethiopia. The origins of the armed struggle are described, as well as the impact of the conflict on local health systems and health status. The health-related activities and public health strategies of the TPLF are described and critiqued in some detail, particular attention is focused on the development of the baito system, the emergent local government structures kindled by the TPLF as a means of promoting local democracy, accountability, and social and economic development. Important issues arise from this brief case-study, such as how emerging health systems operating in wartime can ensure that not only are basic curative services maintained, but preventive and public health services are developed. Documenting the experiences of Tigray helps identify constraints and possibilities for assisting health systems to adapt and cope with ongoing conflict, and raises possibilities that in their aftermath they leave something which can be built upon and further developed. It appears that promoting effective local government may be an important means of promoting primary health care.  (+info)

(3/1130) Reduced naive and increased activated CD4 and CD8 cells in healthy adult Ethiopians compared with their Dutch counterparts.

To assess possible differences in immune status, proportions and absolute numbers of subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were compared between HIV- healthy Ethiopians (n = 52) and HIV- Dutch (n = 60). Both proportions and absolute numbers of naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were found to be significantly reduced in HIV Ethiopians compared with HIV- Dutch subjects. Also, both proportions and absolute numbers of the effector CD8+ T cell population as well as the CD4+CD45RA-CD27- and CD8+CD45RA-CD27- T cell populations were increased in Ethiopians. Finally, both proportions and absolute numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 were significantly reduced in Ethiopians versus Dutch. In addition, the possible association between the described subsets and HIV status was studied by comparing the above 52 HIV- individuals with 32 HIV+ Ethiopians with CD4 counts > 200/microliter and/or no AIDS-defining conditions and 39 HIV+ Ethiopians with CD4 counts < 200/microliter or with AIDS-defining conditions. There was a gradual increase of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, a decrease of CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 and a decrease of effector CD8+ T cells when moving from HIV- to AIDS. Furthermore, a decrease of naive CD8+ T cells and an increase of memory CD8+ T cells in AIDS patients were observed. These results suggest a generally and persistently activated immune system in HIV- Ethiopians. The potential consequences of this are discussed, in relation to HIV infection.  (+info)

(4/1130) Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids.

The Hata Member of the Bouri Formation is defined for Pliocene sedimentary outcrops in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia. The Hata Member is dated to 2.5 million years ago and has produced a new species of Australopithecus and hominid postcranial remains not currently assigned to species. Spatially associated zooarchaeological remains show that hominids acquired meat and marrow by 2.5 million years ago and that they are the near contemporary of Oldowan artifacts at nearby Gona. The combined evidence suggests that behavioral changes associated with lithic technology and enhanced carnivory may have been coincident with the emergence of the Homo clade from Australopithecus afarensis in eastern Africa.  (+info)

(5/1130) Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia.

The lack of an adequate hominid fossil record in eastern Africa between 2 and 3 million years ago (Ma) has hampered investigations of early hominid phylogeny. Discovery of 2.5 Ma hominid cranial and dental remains from the Hata beds of Ethiopia's Middle Awash allows recognition of a new species of Australopithecus. This species is descended from Australopithecus afarensis and is a candidate ancestor for early Homo. Contemporary postcranial remains feature a derived humanlike humeral/femoral ratio and an apelike upper arm-to-lower arm ratio.  (+info)

(6/1130) Immunohematological reference ranges for adult Ethiopians.

A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 485 healthy working adult Ethiopians who are participating in a cohort study on the progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection to establish hematological reference ranges for adult HIV-negative Ethiopians. In addition, enumeration of absolute numbers and percentages of leukocyte subsets was performed for 142 randomly selected HIV-negative individuals. Immunological results were compared to those of 1,356 healthy HIV-negative Dutch blood donor controls. Immunohematological mean values, medians, and 95th percentile reference ranges were established. Mean values were as follows: leukocyte (WBC) counts, 6.1 x 10(9)/liter (both genders); erythrocyte counts, 5.1 x 10(12)/liter (males) and 4.5 x 10(12)/liter (females); hemoglobin, 16.1 (male) and 14.3 (female) g/dl; hematocrit, 48.3% (male) and 42.0% (female); platelets, 205 x 10(9)/liter (both genders); monocytes, 343/microl; granulocytes, 3, 057/microl; lymphocytes, 1,857/microl; CD4 T cells, 775/microl; CD8 T cells, 747/microl; CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio, 1.2; T cells, 1, 555/microl; B cells, 191/microl; and NK cells, 250/microl. The major conclusions follow. (i) The WBC and platelet values of healthy HIV-negative Ethiopians are lower than the adopted reference values of Ethiopia. (ii) The absolute CD4 T-cell counts of healthy HIV-negative Ethiopians are considerably lower than those of the Dutch controls, while the opposite is true for the absolute CD8 T-cell counts. This results in a significantly reduced CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio for healthy Ethiopians, compared to the ratio for Dutch controls.  (+info)

(7/1130) Distribution of fluoride and fluorosis in Ethiopia and prospects for control.

A review and mapping of fluoride test data for 270 water sources in 126 communities and examination of the literature of fluorosis distribution in Ethiopia show that this health problem extends beyond the Rift Valley into some highland communities. Fluoride concentrations above 5.0 mg/l in the Rift Valley were found mostly in hot springs (100% of all sources), lakes (78%), shallow wells (54%) and boreholes (35%) and the lowest concentrations (below 1.5 mg/l) in springs and rivers. Analysis of hydrochemical, economic and demographic factors in the spatial distribution of high-fluoride domestic water sources indicates that the fluorosis problem has become more serious in the Rift Valley in recent decades. Considerable spatial variation in the occurrence of fluoride, even within the same communities, and the presence of some low-fluoride water sources in the Rift Valley offer possibilities for geochemical exploration for acceptable domestic sources. The defluoridation programme in the Wonji irrigation scheme illustrates the problems faced by a large rural community in a developing country. Possibilities for control are examined and recommendations made for the development of alternative water sources and promising defluoridation methods using locally available materials and technologies.  (+info)

(8/1130) Pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in a children's hospital in Ethiopia: serotypes and susceptibility patterns.

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are responsible for most pyogenic meningitis cases in children in Ethiopia. Resistance of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae to penicillin and chloramphenicol respectively has been reported globally. Resistance has been related to specific serotypes of S. pneumoniae or to beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae strains. This study describes the serotypes/ serogroups and susceptibility pattern of the two organisms causing meningitis in Ethiopian children. There were 120 cases of meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae (46) and H. influenzae (74) over a period of 3 years (1993-95). Nineteen children died from pneumococcal and 28 from haemophilus meningitis. Penicillin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis (4/8 = 50%) caused a greater mortality rate than penicillin-susceptible pneumococcal meningitis (15/38 = 39%). Common serotypes accounting for 76% of S. pneumoniae were type 14, 19F, 20, 1, 18 and 5; and serotypes 14, 19F and 7 (accounting for 17% of strains) showed intermediate resistance to penicillin G. 97% of the H. influenzae isolates were type b, and in only two cases beta-lactamase-producing. 72% of isolates of the S. pneumoniae we identified belong to serotypes preventable by a 9-valent vaccine. Our study highlights the possibility of resistant pyogenic meningitis in children in Ethiopia due to emerging resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae isolates.  (+info)