The direct spectrophotometric observation of benzo(a)pyrene phenol formation by liver microsomes. (1/813)

Optical spectral repetitive scan analysis during the oxidative metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by liver microsomal suspensions reveals the time-dependent formation of an intermediate(s) of which the visible spectra resemble those of several benzo(a)pyrene phenols. Liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats showed a greater rate of formation of the phenols than did microsomes from control animals; the rate of formation catalyzed by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats was intermediate. When 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was used as a standard for comparison of activity, the rates of formation of phenols were compared when measured by fluorometric, spectrophotometric, or high-pressure liquid chromatographic analytical techniques. An epoxide hydrase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide, enhanced phenol formation regardless of the source of liver microsomes, and 7,8-benzoflavone inhibited control and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, 7,8-Benzoflavone did not effect benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats. The effect of inhibitors on the spectrophotometric assay correlates well with the results obtained from benzo(a)pyrene metabolite analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography.  (+info)

Elevation of intracellular Na+ induced by hyperpolarization at the dendrites of pyramidal neurones of mouse hippocampus. (2/813)

1. Whole-cell recordings were made from CA1 pyramidal cells in mouse hippocampal slices with patch pipettes containing the sodium indicator dye SBFI (sodium binding benzofuran isophthalate). Using a high-speed imaging system, we investigated changes in intracellular sodium concentration, [Na+]i, in response to hyperpolarizing pulses applied to the soma. 2. In current-clamp recordings, we detected increases in [Na+]i during negative current injection. Hyperpolarization-induced [Na+]i elevation was more prominent in the middle apical dendrites than in the soma. 3. In the voltage-clamp mode, hyperpolarization induced rapid increases in [Na+]i at the apical dendrites that were significantly faster than those at the soma. The signals were not affected by bath application of 1 microM TTX, but were reduced by 5 mM CsCl. 4. Changes in membrane potential recorded from the apical dendrites in response to negative currents were significantly smaller than those recorded from the soma. In the presence of 5 mM CsCl, the I-V relationships measured at the soma and the dendrites became almost identical, indicating that CsCl-sensitive components are predominantly in the apical dendrites. 5. These results suggest that hyperpolarization-induced [Na+]i elevations reflect Na+ influx through the non-selective cation channel (Ih channel), and that this channel is distributed predominantly in the apical dendrites. The non-uniform Na+ influx may contribute to integrative functions of the dendrites.  (+info)

Changes in intracellular Na+ and pH in rat heart during ischemia: role of Na+/H+ exchanger. (3/813)

The role of the Na+/H+ exchanger in rat hearts during ischemia and reperfusion was investigated by measurements of intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and intracellular and extracellular pH. Under our standard conditions (2-Hz stimulation), 10 min of ischemia caused no significant rise in [Na+]i but an acidosis of 1.0 pH unit, suggesting that the Na+/H+ exchanger was inactive during ischemia. This was confirmed by showing that the Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor methylisobutyl amiloride (MIA) had no effect on [Na+]i or on intracellular pH during ischemia. However, there was a short-lived increase in [Na+]i of 8.2 +/- 0.6 mM on reperfusion, which was reduced by MIA, showing that the Na+/H+ exchanger became active on reperfusion. To investigate the role of metabolic changes, we measured [Na+]i during anoxia. The [Na+]i did not change during 10 min of anoxia, but there was a small, transient rise of [Na+]i on reoxygenation, which was inhibited by MIA. In addition, we show that the Na+/H+ exchanger, tested by sodium lactate exposure, was inhibited during anoxia. These results show that the Na+/H+ exchanger is inhibited during ischemia and anoxia, probably by an intracellular metabolic mechanism. The exchanger activates rapidly on reperfusion and can cause a rapid rise in [Na+]i.  (+info)

Unusual antimicrotubule activity of the antifungal agent spongistatin 1. (4/813)

Spongistatin 1, a macrocyclic lactone from the marine sponge Hyrtios erecta, has broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Since this compound is a potent antimicrotubule agent in mammalian cells, we examined its effects on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans to determine if its antifungal effects are due to antimicrotubule activity. At 25 microg/ml (twice the MIC), spongistatin 1 caused a greater-than-twofold elevation of the chromosome and spindle mitotic indices. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that mitotic spindles were smaller and shorter than in control germlings. However, late-anaphase and telophase nuclei were seen occasionally, and this suggests that the spindles are capable of segregating chromosomes. Spongistatin 1 had more dramatic effects on cytoplasmic microtubules. At 30 min after initiation of treatment, 83% of germlings contained fragmented microtubules and after 2 h of treatment, microtubules had disappeared completely from 82% of germlings. In contrast, microtubules disappeared rapidly and completely from germlings treated with benomyl. We conclude that spongistatin 1 has antimicrotubule activity in A. nidulans and that its mechanism of action may involve a novel microtubule-severing activity.  (+info)

Comparison of the capacity of beta-cyclodextrin derivatives and cyclophanes to shuttle cholesterol between cells and serum lipoproteins. (5/813)

Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that low concentrations of cyclodextrins (<1.0 mm), when added to serum, act catalytically as cholesterol shuttles to accelerate the exchange of free cholesterol between cells and serum lipoproteins. As cholesterol shuttles, cyclodextrins have the potential to serve as pharmacological agents for modifying cholesterol metabolism. In the present study, we have quantitated the cholesterol-shuttling capacity of a series of newly synthesized beta-cyclodextrin derivatives (betaCDs), with varying structure, and two double-decker cyclophanes. The general protocol is as follows. [(3)H]cholesterol-labeled CHOK1 cells are incubated for 2 h with the test compounds alone or together with 5% human serum, and efflux of the cellular [(3)H]cholesterol is measured. As methyl beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) served as the basis for comparison, initial experiments were conducted that demonstrated there was a dose-dependent stimulation of cell cholesterol efflux as the concentration of MbetaCD increased, with an EC(50) that was calculated to be 0.05 mm. To determine the cholesterol-shuttling capacity of the newly synthesized compounds, cell cholesterol efflux is measured when the compounds are present alone, at a concentration of 0.05 mm, or together with 5% human serum. Our results demonstrate that the double-decker cyclophanes are the most efficient cholesterol shuttles. Under our experimental conditions, methyl beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) approximately doubles the efflux of cell cholesterol to serum, whereas one of the double-decker cyclophanes produces a 4-fold stimulation in efflux. Four of the beta-cyclodextrin derivatives (betaCDs) display shuttling ability similar to that of MbetaCD. Furthermore, there does not appear to be a structural pattern among the other betaCDs which could explain their shuttling capacity.  (+info)

Mechanisms associated with the negative inotropic effect of deuterium oxide in single rat ventricular myocytes. (6/813)

Deuterium oxide (D2O) is known to cause a negative inotropic effect in muscle although the mechanisms associated with this response in cardiac muscle are not well understood. We studied the effects of D2O in single rat ventricular myocytes in order to characterise the mechanisms associated with its negative inotropic effect and to assess its possible use as an acute modulator of microtubules. D2O rapidly reduced the magnitude of contraction in rat ventricular myocytes, and there was some recovery of contraction in the presence of D2O. Colchicine, an agent known to depolymerise microtubules, did not modify the effect of D2O. D2O decreased the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa), measured under whole cell and perforated patch clamp conditions. Slowing of the time to peak and a delay in inactivation of ICa were observed. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and sodium ([Na+]i) were measured using the fluorescent indicators fura-2 and SBFI, respectively. The fall in contraction upon exposure to D2O was not associated with a fall in the [Ca2+]i transient; this response is indicative of a reduction in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Both the [Ca2+]i transient and [Na+]i increased during the partial recovery of contraction in the presence of D2O. We conclude that a decrease in the myofilament sensitivity for Ca2+ and a reduction in Ca2+ influx via ICa are principally responsible for the negative inotropic effect of D2O in cardiac muscle. We found no evidence to explain the negative inotropic effect of D2O in terms of microtubule proliferation. In addition we suggest that acute application of D2O is not a useful procedure for the investigation of the role of microtubules in excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle.  (+info)

Genetic localization and molecular characterization of the nonS gene required for macrotetrolide biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus DSM40695. (7/813)

The macrotetrolides are a family of cyclic polyethers derived from tetramerization, in a stereospecific fashion, of the enantiomeric nonactic acid (NA) and its homologs. Isotope labeling experiments established that NA is of polyketide origin, and biochemical investigations demonstrated that 2-methyl-6,8-dihydroxynon-2E-enoic acid can be converted into NA by a cell-free preparation from Streptomyces lividans that expresses nonS. These results lead to the hypothesis that macrotetrolide biosynthesis involves a pair of enantiospecific polyketide pathways. In this work, a 55-kb contiguous DNA region was cloned from Streptomyces griseus DSM40695, a 6.3-kb fragment of which was sequenced to reveal five open reading frames, including the previously reported nonR and nonS genes. Inactivation of nonS in vivo completely abolished macrotetrolide production. Complementation of the nonS mutant by the expression of nonS in trans fully restored its macrotetrolide production ability, with a distribution of individual macrotetrolides similar to that for the wild-type producer. In contrast, fermentation of the nonS mutant in the presence of exogenous (+/-)-NA resulted in the production of nonactin, monactin, and dinactin but not in the production of trinactin and tetranactin. These results prove the direct involvement of nonS in macrotetrolide biosynthesis. The difference in macrotetrolide production between in vivo complementation of the nonS mutant by the plasmid-borne nonS gene and fermentation of the nonS mutant in the presence of exogenously added (+/-)-NA suggests that NonS catalyzes the formation of (-)-NA and its homologs, supporting the existence of a pair of enantiospecific polyketide pathways for macrotetrolide biosynthesis in S. griseus. The latter should provide a model that can be used to study the mechanism by which polyketide synthase controls stereochemistry during polyketide biosynthesis.  (+info)

Absolute configuration at C45 in 45-hydroxyyessotoxin, a marine polyether toxin isolated from shellfish. (8/813)

The marine polyether toxin, 45-hydroxyyessotoxin, was isolated together with yessotoxin from the scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis. The 45-hydroxy group in the side chain was esterified with (S)- and (R)-alpha-methoxyalpha-trifluoromethylphenylacetic acids (MTPA). A detailed analysis of the 2D NMR spectra of the two esters established the R configuration at C45.  (+info)