Carcinogenicity of triethanolamine in mice and its mutagenicity after reaction with sodium nitrite in bacteria.
Mice fed a diet containing 0.3 or 0.03% triethanolamine developed malignant tumors. Females showed a high incidence of tumors in lymphoid tissues, while this type was absent in males. Tumors in other tissues were produced at a considerable rate in both sexes, but no hepatoma was found. Triethanolamine was not mutagenic to Bacillus subtilis by itself, but it became mutagenic after reacting with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions or when the mixture was heated. Although N-nitrosodiethanolamine, a known carcinogen and mutagen, was detected in the reaction mixture by thin-layer chromatography, it may not be the main mutagenic product, because the product was a stable and direct mutagen and its mutagenic activity was destroyed by liver enzymes, unlike N-nitrosodiethanolamine. The lethal and mutagenic DNA damages produced by this unidentified product were susceptible to some extent to the repair functions of the bacteria. (+info)
Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices.
1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis. (+info)
Kinetic analysis of drug-receptor interactions of long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics in isolated receptor membranes: evidence against prolonged effects of salmeterol and formoterol on receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase.
The long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics salmeterol and formoterol have been presumed to exert their prolonged action either by binding to an accessory binding site ("exo-site") near the beta2 adrenoceptor or by their high affinity for beta2 adrenoceptors and correspondingly slow dissociation. Whereas most studies with salmeterol had been done in intact tissues, which have slow diffusion and compartmentation of drugs in lipophilic phases, that restrict drug access to the receptor biophase, we used purified receptor membranes from rat lung and disaggregated calf tracheal myocytes as model systems. Binding experiments were designed to measure the slow dissociation of agonists by means of delayed association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol. Rat lung membranes were pretreated with high concentrations of agonists (salmeterol, formoterol, isoprenaline) before dissociation was induced by 50-fold dilution. Half-times of association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol remained unchanged compared with untreated controls, indicating that dissociation of agonists occurred in less than 2 min. Adenylyl cyclase experiments were designed to determine the on and off kinetics of agonists to beta2 adrenoceptors by measuring the rate of receptor-induced cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation. Experiments were performed in tracheal membranes characterized by high Vmax values of cAMP formation. Adenylyl cyclase activation occurred simultaneously with the addition of the agonist, continued linearly with time for 60 min, and ceased immediately after the antagonist was added. Similarly, when receptor membranes were preincubated in a small volume with high salmeterol concentrations, there was a linear increase in cAMP formation, which was immediately interrupted by a 100-fold dilution of the reaction mixture. This militates against the exo-site hypothesis. On the other hand, dissociation by dilution was much less when membranes were preincubated with a large volume of salmeterol at the same concentration, indicating that physicochemical effects, and not exo-site binding, underlie its prolonged mode of action. (+info)
Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism and bronchoprotective sensitivity with regular short- and long-acting beta2-agonist therapy.
The aim of the present study was to investigate bronchoprotective sensitivity in patients receiving regular treatment with short- and long-acting beta2-agonists and to evaluate any possible association with genetic polymorphism. Thirty-eight patients with stable mild to moderate asthma and receiving inhaled corticosteroids were randomized in a parallel group, double-blind, double-dummy fashion to receive 2 weeks of treatment with either formoterol (12 microg once daily, 6 microg twice daily or 24 microg twice daily) or terbutaline (500 microg four times daily). Bronchoprotection against methacholine challenge (as a provocative dose to produce a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s: PD20) was measured at baseline (unprotected) after an initial 1 week run-in without beta2-agonist, and at 1 h after the first and last doses of each treatment. The PD20 values were log-transformed and calculated as change from baseline. Percentage desensitization of log PD20 for first- versus last-dose bronchoprotection was calculated and analysed according to effects of treatment and beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. The mean degree of desensitization for bronchoprotection was comparable with all four treatments and there were no significant differences in absolute PD20 values after 2 weeks of chronic dosing. The PD20 values were (as microg of methacholine, geometric means+/-S. E.M.): formoterol, 12 microg once daily, 99+/-42 microg; formoterol, 6 microg twice daily, 107+/-44 microg; formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, 108+/-45 microg; terbutaline, 500 microg four times daily, 88+/-37 microg. All patients receiving formoterol, 24 microg twice daily, exhibited a loss of protection greater than 30% which was unrelated to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. For codon 16, the use of lower doses of formoterol (12 microg once daily or 6 microg twice daily) showed wider variability in the propensity for protection loss in patients who were heterozygous, in contrast to a more uniform protection loss seen with homozygous glycine patients. The amount of protection loss was not significantly related to polymorphism at codon 16 or 27, expressed as values (mean+/-S.E.M.) for percentage desensitization according to each genotype (pooled treatments): Gly-16, 66+/-11%; Het-16, 53+/-8%; Arg-16, 69+/-18%; Glu-27, 68+/-12%; Het-27, 58+/-8%; Gln-27, 52+/-12%. The results of this preliminary study showed that bronchoprotective desensitization occurred readily in response to short- or long-acting beta2-agonist exposure irrespective of beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism at codon 16 or 27. Further studies with larger patient numbers are required to further evaluate the effects of polymorphisms with lower doses of regular formoterol. (+info)
Effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha on left ventricular function in the rat isolated perfused heart: possible mechanisms for a decline in cardiac function.
1. The cardiac depressant actions of TNF were investigated in the isolated perfused rat heart under constant flow (10 ml min(-1)) and constant pressure (70 mmHg) conditions, using a recirculating (50 ml) mode of perfusion. 2. Under constant flow conditions TNF (20 ng ml(-1)) caused an early (< 25 min) decrease in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), which was maintained for 90 min (LVDP after 90 min: control vs TNF; 110 +/- 4 vs 82 +/- 10 mmHg, P < 0.01). 3. The depression in cardiac function seen with TNF under constant flow conditions, was blocked by the ceramidase inhibitor N-oleoylethanolamine (NOE), 1 microM, (LVDP after 90 min: TNF vs TNF with NOE; 82 +/- 10 vs 11 +/- 5 mmHg, P < 0.05). 4. In hearts perfused at constant pressure, TNF caused a decrease in coronary flow rate (change in flow 20 min after TNF: control vs TNF; -3.0 +/- 0.9 vs -8.7 +/- 1.2 ml min(-1), P < 0.01). This was paralleled by a negative inotropic effect (change in LVDP 20 min after TNF: control vs TNF; -17 +/- 7 vs -46 +/- 6 mmHg, P < 0.01). The decline in function was more rapid and more severe than that seen under conditions of constant flow. 5. These data indicate that cardiac function can be disrupted by TNF on two levels, firstly via a direct, ceramidase dependant negative inotropic effect, and secondly via an indirect coronary vasoconstriction. (+info)
MCD4 encodes a conserved endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein essential for glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor synthesis in yeast.
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are cell surface-localized proteins that serve many important cellular functions. The pathway mediating synthesis and attachment of the GPI anchor to these proteins in eukaryotic cells is complex, highly conserved, and plays a critical role in the proper targeting, transport, and function of all GPI-anchored protein family members. In this article, we demonstrate that MCD4, an essential gene that was initially identified in a genetic screen to isolate Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants defective for bud emergence, encodes a previously unidentified component of the GPI anchor synthesis pathway. Mcd4p is a multimembrane-spanning protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and contains a large NH2-terminal ER lumenal domain. We have also cloned the human MCD4 gene and found that Mcd4p is both highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and has two yeast homologues. Mcd4p's lumenal domain contains three conserved motifs found in mammalian phosphodiesterases and nucleotide pyrophosphases; notably, the temperature-conditional MCD4 allele used for our studies (mcd4-174) harbors a single amino acid change in motif 2. The mcd4-174 mutant (1) is defective in ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins (i.e., Gas1p) while other proteins (i.e., CPY) are unaffected; (2) secretes and releases (potentially up-regulated cell wall) proteins into the medium, suggesting a defect in cell wall integrity; and (3) exhibits marked morphological defects, most notably the accumulation of distorted, ER- and vesicle-like membranes. mcd4-174 cells synthesize all classes of inositolphosphoceramides, indicating that the GPI protein transport block is not due to deficient ceramide synthesis. However, mcd4-174 cells have a severe defect in incorporation of [3H]inositol into proteins and accumulate several previously uncharacterized [3H]inositol-labeled lipids whose properties are consistent with their being GPI precursors. Together, these studies demonstrate that MCD4 encodes a new, conserved component of the GPI anchor synthesis pathway and highlight the intimate connections between GPI anchoring, bud emergence, cell wall function, and feedback mechanisms likely to be involved in regulating each of these essential processes. A putative role for Mcd4p as participating in the modification of GPI anchors with side chain phosphoethanolamine is also discussed. (+info)
Effects of beta2-adrenergic stimulation on single-channel gating of rat cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels.
Cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels can be stimulated by activation of beta2-adrenoceptors. We intended to determine how the gating behavior at the single-channel level (cell-attached configuration) is affected after selective stimulation of beta2-adrenoceptors. Rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to zinterol, a beta2-agonist (n = 7), isoproterenol (n = 6), a nonselective agonist, 8-bromo-cAMP (n = 6), and a combination of isoproterenol and ICI-118551 (n = 8), a selective beta2-receptor antagonist, or isoproterenol and CGP-20712A, a beta1-selective antagonist (n = 7). In all groups the ensemble-average current and the availability of the channels to open on depolarization were increased in a similar fashion. In addition, the open probability (Po) within active sweeps was elevated. However, zinterol exerted this effect in a unique manner. It elevated Po not by shortening closed times but solely by reducing active sweeps with very low Po and a short burst duration. All zinterol effects were abolished by ICI-118551 (n = 5) and mimicked by isoproterenol plus CGP-20712A (n = 7). We conclude that beta2-adrenoceptor activation of L-type channels differs qualitatively from the classical cAMP-dependent mechanism. (+info)
A randomized, double-blind, comparative trial of a new oral combination of artemether and benflumetol (CGP 56697) with mefloquine in the treatment of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand.
CGP 56697, a new oral fixed combination of artemether and benflumetol, was tested in a double-blinded, randomized trial in 252 adult patients treated either with CGP 56697 (4 x 4 tablets each containing 20 mg of artemether and 120 mg of benflumetol, given at 0, 8, 24, and 48 hr), or with mefloquine (three tablets of 250 mg at initial diagnosis, followed by two tablets of 250 mg at 8 hr). Baseline data of the two groups were comparable. The 28-day cure rate with CGP 56697 was lower than with mefloquine (69.3% versus 82.4%; P = 0.002). However, CGP 56697 was more effective than mefloquine in parasite clearance time (43 hr versus 66 hr; P < 0.001) fever clearance time (32 hr versus 54 hr; P < 0.005), and gametocyte clearance time (152 hr versus 331 hr; P < 0.001). This study revealed that CGP 56697 is effective against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand, but higher doses will probably be needed to improve the cure rate. (+info)