Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1.
Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the chloride/bicarbonate exchange protein of the erythrocyte membrane. By using a combination of introduced cysteine mutants and sulfhydryl-specific chemistry, we have mapped the topology of the human AE1 membrane domain. Twenty-seven single cysteines were introduced throughout the Leu708-Val911 region of human AE1, and these mutants were expressed by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney cells. On the basis of cysteine accessibility to membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and to membrane-impermeant lucifer yellow iodoacetamide, we have proposed a model for the topology of AE1 membrane domain. In this model, AE1 is composed of 13 typical transmembrane segments, and the Asp807-His834 region is membrane-embedded but does not have the usual alpha-helical conformation. To identify amino acids that are important for anion transport, we analyzed the anion exchange activity for all introduced cysteine mutants, using a whole cell fluorescence assay. We found that mutants G714C, S725C, and S731C have very low transport activity, implying that this region has a structurally and/or catalytically important role. We measured the residual anion transport activity after mutant treatment with the membrane-impermeant, cysteine-directed compound, sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)methanethiosulfonate) (MTSES). Only two mutants, S852C and A858C, were inhibited by MTSES, indicating that these residues may be located in a pore-lining region. (+info)
Calculation of a Gap restoration in the membrane skeleton of the red blood cell: possible role for myosin II in local repair.
Human red blood cells contain all of the elements involved in the formation of nonmuscle actomyosin II complexes (V. M. Fowler. 1986. J. Cell. Biochem. 31:1-9; 1996. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8:86-96). No clear function has yet been attributed to these complexes. Using a mathematical model for the structure of the red blood cell spectrin skeleton (M. J. Saxton. 1992. J. Theor. Biol. 155:517-536), we have explored a possible role for myosin II bipolar minifilaments in the restoration of the membrane skeleton, which may be locally damaged by major mechanical or chemical stress. We propose that the establishment of stable links between distant antiparallel actin protofilaments after a local myosin II activation may initiate the repair of the disrupted area. We show that it is possible to define conditions in which the calculated number of myosin II minifilaments bound to actin protofilaments is consistent with the estimated number of myosin II minifilaments present in the red blood cells. A clear restoration effect can be observed when more than 50% of the spectrin polymers of a defined area are disrupted. It corresponds to a significant increase in the spectrin density in the protein free region of the membrane. This may be involved in a more complex repair process of the red blood cell membrane, which includes the vesiculation of the bilayer and the compaction of the disassembled spectrin network. (+info)
Differences in the actions of some blockers of the calcium-activated potassium permeability in mammalian red cells.
1. The actions of some inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated K+ permeability in mammalian red cells have been compared. 2. Block of the permeability was assessed from the reduction in the net loss of K+ that followed the application of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) to rabbit red cells suspended at a haematocrit of 1% in a low potassium solution ([K]0 0.12-0.17 mM) at 37 degrees C. Net movement of K+ was measured using a K+-sensitive electrode placed in the suspension. 3. The concentrations (microM +/- s.d.) of the compounds tested causing 50% inhibition of K+ loss were: quinine, 37 +/- 3; cetiedil, 26 +/- 1; the cetiedil congeners UCL 1269, UCL 1274 and UCL 1495, approximately 150, 8.2 +/- 0.1, 0.92 +/- 0.03 respectively; clotrimazole, 1.2 +/- 0.1; nitrendipine, 3.6 +/- 0.5 and charybdotoxin, 0.015 +/- 0.002. 4. The characteristics of the block suggested that compounds could be placed in two groups. For one set (quinine, cetiedil, and the UCL congeners), the concentration-inhibition curves were steeper (Hill coefficient, nH, > or = 2.7) than for the other (clotrimazole, nitrendipine, charybdotoxin) for which nH approximately 1. 5. Compounds in the first set alone became less active on raising the concentration of K+ in the external solution to 5.4 mM. 6. The rate of K+ loss induced by A23187 slowed in the presence of high concentrations of cetiedil and its analogues, suggesting a use-dependent component to the inhibitory action. This was not seen with clotrimazole. 7. The blocking action of the cetiedil analogue UCL 1274 could not be overcome by an increase in external Ca2+ and its potency was unaltered when K+ loss was induced by the application of Pb2+ (10 microM) rather than by A23187. 8. These results, taken with the findings of others, suggest that agents that block the red cell Ca2+-activated K+ permeability can be placed in two groups with different mechanisms of action. The differences can be explained by supposing that clotrimazole and charybdotoxin act at the outer face of the channel whereas cetiedil and its congeners may block within it, either at or near the K+ binding site that determines the flow of K+. (+info)
Structural and functional consequences of antigenic modulation of red blood cells with methoxypoly(ethylene glycol).
We previously showed that the covalent modification of the red blood cell (RBC) surface with methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) [mPEG; MW approximately 5 kD] could significantly attenuate the immunologic recognition of surface antigens. However, to make these antigenically silent RBC a clinically viable option, the mPEG-modified RBC must maintain normal cellular structure and functions. To this end, mPEG-derivatization was found to have no significant detrimental effects on RBC structure or function at concentrations that effectively blocked antigenic recognition of a variety of RBC antigens. Importantly, RBC lysis, morphology, and hemoglobin oxidation state were unaffected by mPEG-modification. Furthermore, as shown by functional studies of Band 3, a major site of modification, PEG-binding does not affect protein function, as evidenced by normal SO4- flux. Similarly, Na+ and K+ homeostasis were unaffected. The functional aspects of the mPEG-modified RBC were also maintained, as evidenced by normal oxygen binding and cellular deformability. Perhaps most importantly, mPEG-derivatized mouse RBC showed normal in vivo survival ( approximately 50 days) with no sensitization after repeated transfusions. These data further support the hypothesis that the covalent attachment of nonimmunogenic materials (eg, mPEG) to intact RBC may have significant application in transfusion medicine, especially for the chronically transfused and/or allosensitized patient. (+info)
Non-selective voltage-activated cation channel in the human red blood cell membrane.
Using the patch-clamp technique, a non-selective voltage-activated Na+ and K+ channel in the human red blood cell membrane was found. The channel operates only at positive membrane potentials from about +30 mV (inside positive) onwards. For sodium and potassium ions, similar conductances of about 21 pS were determined. Together with the recently described K+(Na+)/H+ exchanger, this channel is responsible for the increase of residual K+ and Na+ fluxes across the human red blood cell membrane when the cells are suspended in low ionic strength medium. (+info)
Spectrofluorimetric detection of DMBA-induced mouse skin carcinoma.
An attempt has been made to evaluate the normal and cancer blood samples of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mouse skin carcinoma by spectrofluorimetric method. Analysis of acetone extracts of plasma, erythrocyte and erythrocyte membrane showed an alteration around 630 nm when excited at 400 nm by cancer samples, compared to normal samples. The ratio of fluorescent intensity at 530 nm/630 nm was found to be decreased in erythrocyte and plasma and increased in erythrocyte membrane. These changes are not detectable in both hemolysates. It has been suggested that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies. (+info)
Resolution of the paradox of red cell shape changes in low and high pH.
The molecular basis of cell shape regulation in acidic pH was investigated in human erythrocytes. Intact erythrocytes maintain normal shape in the cell pH range 6.3-7.9, but invaginate at lower pH values. However, consistent with predicted pH-dependent changes in the erythrocyte membrane skeleton, isolated erythrocyte membranes evaginate in acidic pH. Moreover, intact cells evaginate at pH greater than 7.9, but isolated membranes invaginate in this condition. Labeling with the hydrophobic, photoactivatable probe 5-[125I]iodonaphthyl-1-azide demonstrated pH-dependent hydrophobic insertion of an amphitropic protein into membranes of intact cells but not into isolated membranes. Based on molecular weight and on reconstitution experiments using stripped inside-out vesicles, the most likely candidate for the variably labeled protein is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Resealing of isolated membranes reconstituted both the shape changes and the hydrophobic labeling profile seen in intact cells. This observation appears to resolve the paradox of the contradictory pH dependence of shape changes of intact cells and isolated membranes. In intact erythrocytes, the demonstrated protein-membrane interaction would oppose pH-dependent shape effects of the spectrin membrane skeleton, stabilizing cell shape in moderately abnormal pH. Stabilization of erythrocyte shape in moderately acidic pH may prevent inappropriate red cell destruction in the spleen. (+info)
Interaction between terminal complement proteins C5b-7 and anionic phospholipids.
We have recently shown that C5b-6 binds to the erythrocyte membrane via an ionic interaction with sialic acid before the addition of C7 and subsequent membrane insertion. In this study we assessed the role of anionic lipids in the binding of the terminal complement proteins to the membrane and the efficiency of subsequent hemolysis. Human erythrocytes were modified by insertion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine (DPPS), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE), or dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA). Lipid incorporation and the hemolytic assays were done in the presence of 100 micromol/L sodium orthovanadate to prevent enzymatic redistribution of lipid. We found that the neutral lipids, DPPC and DPPE, did not affect C5b-7 uptake or hemolysis by C5b-9. In contrast, the two acidic phospholipids, DPPS and DPPA, caused a dose-dependent increase in both lysis and C5b-7 uptake. We conclude that the presence of anionic lipids on the exterior face of the membrane increases C5b-7 uptake and subsequent hemolysis. It is known that sickle cell erythrocytes have increased exposure of phosphatidylserine on their external face and are abnormally sensitive to lysis by C5b-9. The data presented here provide a plausible mechanism for this increased sensitivity. (+info)