Invasive group A streptococcal infections: T1M1 isolates expressing pyrogenic exotoxins A and B in combination with selective lack of toxin-neutralizing antibodies are associated with increased risk of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.
Analysis of 132 group A streptococcal (GAS) isolates from 151 invasive episodes, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), from 1983 to 1995 showed great genetic variation by use of T serotyping in combination with restriction fragment length polymorphism. In contrast, genetically homogenous T1M1 isolates appeared in epidemic patterns with significantly increased risk of STSS. The speA gene, with the allelic variants speA2 and speA3 carried by the T1M1 and T3M3 serotypes, respectively, was strongly associated with STSS. Infection with a GAS isolate carrying speA, alcohol abuse, and malignancy recently treated with cytostatic drugs were factors independently related to STSS. Neutralization of SpeA lymphocyte mitogenicity was totally absent in sera from patients with STSS and low in sera from persons with uncomplicated bacteremia compared with levels in sera from uncomplicated erysipelas. Neutralization of SpeB was significantly lower in sera of patients with STSS than in sera from persons with bacteremia or erysipelas. (+info)
Anal colonization of group G beta-hemolytic streptococci in relapsing erysipelas of the lower extremity.
Four patients who had frequent relapses of erysipelas but no obvious portal of entry and no beta-hemolytic streptococci in specimens from conventional culture sites all had group G streptococci in cultures of specimens from the anal canal. It is suggested that anal colonization with group G streptococci, and possibly group A and other beta-hemolytic streptococci, may constitute a reservoir for streptococci in such cases. (+info)
Outbreak of idiopathic erysipelas in a psychiatric hospital.
In an outbreak of idiopathic erysipelas ten women patients, aged 42-74, in a long-stay unit of a psychiatric hospital were simultaneously affected. Group A streptococci M-type 1 were isolated from two isolated from two patients with erysipelas and 18 carriers, but subsequent serological tests for type-specific antibody, antistreptolysin O, and anti-deoxyribonuclease B showed that the infection had been widespread in the unit. Treatment with ampicillin proved ineffective and to prevent relapse it was substituted by a standard course of intramuscular penicillin. This seems to be the first epidemic of this type to be reported and certainly the first outbreak of idiopathic erysipelas to be investigated by modern serological techniques. (+info)
Antibiotic use in patients with erysipelas: a retrospective study.
BACKGROUND: Erysipelas is a skin infection generally caused by group A streptococci. Although penicillin is the drug of choice, some physicians tend to treat erysipelas with antibiotics other than penicillin. OBJECTIVES: To define the pattern of antibiotic use, factors affecting antibiotic selection, and outcome of patients treated with penicillin versus those treated with other antimicrobial agents. METHODS: A retrospective review of charts of adult patients with discharge diagnosis of erysipelas was conducted for the years 1993-1996. RESULTS: The study group comprised 365 patients (median age 67 years). In 76% of the cases infection involved the leg/s. Predisposing condition/s were present in 82% of cases. Microorganisms were isolated from blood cultures in only 6 of 176 cases (3%), and Streptococcus spp. was recovered in four of these six patients. Cultures from skin specimens were positive in 3 of 23 cases. Penicillin alone was given to 164 patients (45%). Other antibiotics were more commonly used in the second half of the study period (P < 0.0001) in patients with underlying conditions (P = 0.06) and in those hospitalized in the dermatology ward (P < 0.0001). Hospitalization was significantly shorter in the penicillin group (P = 0.004). There were no in-hospital deaths. CONCLUSIONS: We found no advantage in using antibiotics other than penicillin for treating erysipelas. The low yield of skin and blood cultures and their marginal impact on management, as well as the excellent outcome suggest that this infection can probably be treated empirically on an outpatient basis. (+info)
Oral pristinamycin versus standard penicillin regimen to treat erysipelas in adults: randomised, non-inferiority, open trial.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of oral pristinamycin versus intravenous then oral penicillin to treat erysipelas in patients in hospital. DESIGN: Multicentre, parallel group, open labelled, randomised non-inferiority trial. SETTING: 22 French hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 289 adults admitted to hospital with erysipelas. RESULTS: At follow up (day 25-45) the cure rate (primary efficacy end point) for the per protocol populations was 81% (83/102) for pristinamycin and 67% (68/102) for penicillin. The planned interim analysis (global one sided type I error 5%) showed that the one sided 97.06% confidence interval of the observed difference (pristinamycin-penicillin) between cure rates (3.3% to infinity ) exceeded the -10% non-inferiority threshold. For the intention to treat populations the cure rate at follow up was 65% (90/138) for pristinamycin and 53% (79/150) for penicillin, with the one sided 97.06% confidence interval of the observed difference between cure rates (1.7% to infinity ) exceeding the -10% non-inferiority threshold. That the lower limit of the confidence interval exceeded the -10% threshold and was also >0 supports the hypothesis that pristinamycin is significantly superior at the 5% level. More adverse events related to treatment, as assessed by the investigators, were reported in the pristinamycin group than in the penicillin group. Most adverse events involved the gastrointestinal tract (nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea) but were minor and usually did not require discontinuation of treatment. CONCLUSION: Pristinamycin could be an alternative to the standard intravenous then oral penicillin regimen used to treat erysipelas in adults in hospital, with the advantages of oral first line therapy. (+info)
Common infections in clinical practice: dealing with the daily uncertainties.
Common infections we see every day in the office--urinary tract infections, vaginitis, upper respiratory tract infections, and soft-tissue infections--present a number of diagnostic and treatment uncertainties. In this age of growing antibiotic resistance, these include if and when to start antibiotic therapy, and which agents to use. (+info)
Resting tachycardia, a warning sign in anorexia nervosa: case report.
BACKGROUND: Among psychiatric disorders, anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate. During an exacerbation of this illness, patients frequently present with nonspecific symptoms. Upon hospitalization, anorexia nervosa patients are often markedly bradycardic, which may be an adaptive response to progressive weight loss and negative energy balance. When anorexia nervosa patients manifest tachycardia, even heart rates in the 80-90 bpm range, a supervening acute illness should be suspected. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year old woman with longstanding anorexia nervosa was hospitalized due to progressive leg pain, weakness, and fatigue accompanied by marked weight loss. On physical examination she was cachectic but in no apparent distress. She had fine lanugo-type hair over her face and arms with an erythematous rash noted on her palms and left lower extremity. Her blood pressure was 96/50 mm Hg and resting heart rate was 106 bpm though she appeared euvolemic. Laboratory tests revealed anemia, mild leukocytosis, and hypoalbuminemia. She was initially treated with enteral feedings for an exacerbation of anorexia nervosa, but increasing leukocytosis without fever and worsening left leg pain prompted the diagnosis of an indolent left lower extremity cellulitis. With antibiotic therapy her heart rate decreased to 45 bpm despite minimal restoration of body weight. CONCLUSIONS: Bradycardia is a characteristic feature of anorexia nervosa particularly with significant weight loss. When anorexia nervosa patients present with nonspecific symptoms, resting tachycardia should prompt a search for potentially life-threatening conditions. (+info)
Reemergence of emm1 and a changed superantigen profile for group A streptococci causing invasive infections: results from a nationwide study.
Between 1999 and 2002, 496 invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) isolates from clinical microbiological departments in Denmark and subsequently 487 (98%) questionnaires from the clinicians treating the patients were received as part of a national surveillance. emm types and streptococcal superantigen (SAg) genes were determined. The incidence of invasive GAS infections was on average 2.3 per 100,000 per year. Bacteremia with no focal symptoms (27%) was together with erysipelas (20%) the most prevalent clinical diagnoses. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome occurred in 10% of patients, of which 56% died. The overall case fatality rate within 30 days was 23%. In total, 47 different emm types were identified, of which emm1, emm3, emm4, emm12, emm28, and emm89 were identified in 72% of the 493 available isolates. During the 4-year period the presence of emm1 increased from 16% in 1999 to 40% in 2002. Concurrently, the presence of emm3 decreased from 23% in 1999 to 2% in 2002. The emm1 isolates predominantly carried speA, although the frequency decreased from 94% in 1999 to 71% in 2002, whereas the emm1-specific prevalence of speC increased from 25 to 53%. In a historical perspective, this could be interpreted as a reemergence of emm1 and could indicate a possible introduction of a new emm1 subclone. However, this reemergence did not result in any significant changes in the clinical manifestations during the study period. Our results show the complexity of invasive GAS infections, with time-dependent variations in the incidence and distribution of emm and SAg genes, which emphasizes the need for continuous epidemiological and molecular investigations. (+info)