Beyond artificial, sex-linked distinctions to conceptualize female sexuality: comment on Baumeister (2000)
The authors comment on three aspects of R. F. Baumeister's (2000) theoretical article on female sexuality. Questioning the predominance of nature versus cultural factors in accounting for sexual outcomes for men and women, the authors draw attention to the similarities (as opposed to differences) in the sexual attitudes, behaviors, and responses of men and women, and directly question the suggestion of "controlling" women's sexual attitudes, behaviors, responses, etc. to meet social needs for change. (+info)
Erotized transference in the male patient-female therapist dyad.
Little has been published regarding male patients' erotic transferences to female therapists. It has been suggested that male patients do not develop full erotic transferences and rarely experience erotized transferences. The author presents a case report documenting erotization in a male patient-female therapist dyad and reviews current theories on the etiology, therapeutic significance, and treatment strategies indicated for such a transference. (+info)
The effect of visual sexual stimulation on urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline in impotent patients.
In 15 impotent patients, the effect of visual sexual stimulation was evaluated by measuring their urinary levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline, before and after stimulation. Both adrenaline and noradrenaline increased in the urine over the base levels in response to the visual sexual stimulation. The average increases were 1.5 times for adrenaline, and 1.4 times for noradrenaline. There was an evident correlation between the degree of sexual excitation and the excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline into urine. (+info)
Neural correlates of conscious self-regulation of emotion.
A fundamental question about the relationship between cognition and emotion concerns the neural substrate underlying emotional self-regulation. To address this issue, brain activation was measured in normal male subjects while they either responded in a normal manner to erotic film excerpts or voluntarily attempted to inhibit the sexual arousal induced by viewing erotic stimuli. Results demonstrated that the sexual arousal experienced, in response to the erotic film excerpts, was associated with activation in "limbic" and paralimbic structures, such as the right amygdala, right anterior temporal pole, and hypothalamus. In addition, the attempted inhibition of the sexual arousal generated by viewing the erotic stimuli was associated with activation of the right superior frontal gyrus and right anterior cingulate gyrus. No activation was found in limbic areas. These findings reinforce the view that emotional self-regulation is normally implemented by a neural circuit comprising various prefrontal regions and subcortical limbic structures. They also suggest that humans have the capacity to influence the electrochemical dynamics of their brains, by voluntarily changing the nature of the mind processes unfolding in the psychological space. (+info)
Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.
Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed. (+info)
Penile length is normal in most men seeking penile lengthening procedures.
Concerns over penile size and a desire for a longer penis are common in the male population. The number of male patients seeking an andrological consultation for the problem of 'short penis' is increasing. We looked at the numbers of patients presenting to a University andrology clinic over a 2-y period and correlated their perceived penis size with the accepted norms. Sixty-seven patients were evaluated with a median age of 27 (range 16-55) complaining of 'short penis' and requesting surgical correction. Clinical history, including the IIEF-5 questionnaire and an accurate physical examination were obtained. Data concerning measures of penile length and circumference were recorded in both the flaccid and fully stretched states and compared to the normal reference range as previously described in the nomogram we recently published (Eur Urol 2001; 39: 183-186.). All patients were also asked to estimate the length of a normal sized penis.Fourty-four (65.7%) complained of a short penis only while flaccid, 22 patients (32.8%%) while both flaccid and erect, and only one patient (1.5%) was worried only by the erect length of the penis. Fifteen (22.4%) also complained about their penile circumference. Fifty-seven (85%) patients thought a 'normal' penile length should range from 10 to 17 cm (median value of 12 cm). Ten patients (15%) were not able to estimate 'normal' penile size. No patient was found to have a penile length under the 2.5 percentile according to our nomogram. Forty-two (62.7%) subjects recalled the problem starting in childhood, when they felt that their penis was smaller than their friends'. In 25 patients (37.3%) the problem started in the teenage years after seeing erotic images. Our data show that most men who seek penile lengthening surgery overestimate 'normal' penile length. In our series, none of the patients could be classified as having a severely short penis according to our nomogram and none had any anatomical penile abnormality. Most found the use of a nomgram to show them how they compared with other men helpful. We suggest that documentation of such a demonstration should be made for any man seeking an opinion on penile lengthening surgery. (+info)
Effects of acute prolactin manipulation on sexual drive and function in males.
The neuroendocrine response to sexual activity in humans is characterized by a pronounced orgasm-dependent increase of plasma levels of prolactin. In contrast to the well-known inhibitory effects of chronic hyperprolactinemia on sexual drive and function, the impact of acute prolactin alterations on human sexual physiology is unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of acute manipulation of plasma prolactin on sexual behavior. Ten healthy males participated in a single-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced cross-over design. Prolactin levels were pharmacologically increased to high levels (protirelin, 50 micro g i.v.) or reduced to low physiological concentrations (cabergoline, 0.5 mg p.o.). Sexual arousal and orgasm were then induced by an erotic film and masturbation. In addition to continuous neuroendocrine and cardiovascular recordings, the quality and intensity of the acute sexual drive, arousal, orgasm and refractory period were assessed by extensive psychometric measures. Administration of cabergoline decreased prolactin levels and significantly enhanced all parameters of sexual drive (P<0.05), function (P<0.01) and positive perception of the refractory period (P<0.01). Administration of protirelin increased prolactin concentrations and produced small, but not significant reductions of sexual parameters. The sexual effects observed from cabergoline were completely abrogated by coadministration of protirelin. Although different pharmacological sites of action of prolactin-altering drugs have to be considered, these data demonstrate that acute changes in prolactin plasma levels may be one factor modulating sexual drive and function. Therefore, besides a neuroendocrine reproductive reflex, a post-orgasmic prolactin increase may represent one factor modulating central nervous system centers controlling sexual drive and behavior. These findings may offer a new pharmacological approach for the treatment of sexual disorders. (+info)
Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging.
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6+/-5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5+/-6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE= 90 degrees /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. RESULTS: There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed. (+info)