Septicemia in dialysis patients: incidence, risk factors, and prognosis.
BACKGROUND: Infection is second to cardiovascular disease as a cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and septicemia causes a majority of these infectious deaths. To identify patients at high risk and to characterize modifiable risk factors for septicemia, we examined the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis for septicemia in a large, representative group of U.S. dialysis patients. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of incident ESRD patients in the case-mix study of the U.S. Renal Data System with seven years of follow-up from hospitalization and death records. Poisson regression was used to examine independent risk factors for hospital-managed septicemia. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the independent effect of septicemia on all-cause mortality and on death from septicemia. Separate analyses were performed for patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). RESULTS: Over seven years of follow-up, 11.7% of 4005 HD patients and 9.4% of 913 PD patients had at least one episode of septicemia. Older age and diabetes were independent risk factors for septicemia in all patients. Among HD patients, low serum albumin, temporary vascular access, and dialyzer reuse were also associated with increased risk. Among PD patients, white race and having no health insurance at dialysis initiation were also risk factors. Patients with septicemia had twice the risk of death from any cause and a fivefold to ninefold increased risk of death from septicemia. CONCLUSIONS: Septicemia, which carries a marked increased risk of death, occurs frequently in patients on PD as well as HD. Early referral to a nephrologist, improving nutrition, and avoiding temporary vascular access may decrease the incidence of septicemia. Further study of how race, insurance status, and dialyzer reuse can contribute to the risk of septicemia among ESRD patients is indicated. (+info)
Distortion of metallic orthodontic brackets after clinical use and debond by two methods.
The objective of this paper was to compare distortion of the tie wings and bases of metallic orthodontic brackets following clinical use and after debond by either of two methods, and took the form of a prospective random control trial. Five-hundred-and-seven brackets were debonded using either bracket removing pliers or a lift off debonding instrument (LODI). By a system of random allocation contralateral opposing quadrants were debonded with a 0.019 x 0.025-inch archwire either in place or removed. After debond brackets were tested for slot closure by the fit of rectangular test wires from 0.016 x 0.022 to 0.021 x 0.025 inch in size. The LODI produced few slot closures sufficient to affect the fit of all but the largest test wire. Bracket removing pliers used after removal of the archwire produced significantly greater numbers of distorted brackets in response to testing with all but the largest wire. With the 0.021 x 0.025 inch wire in place the presence or absence of the archwire at the time of debond made no difference to the number of slot closures. Ten per cent of the brackets debonded using bracket removing pliers had distorted bases, no base damage was produced by the LODI. The use of bracket removing pliers at debond caused significantly more slot closures than use of the LODI. When bracket removing pliers are used the archwire should be left in place at the time of debond since this reduces the number of distortions. (+info)
A medico-legal review of some current UK guidelines in orthodontics: a personal view.
This article is a critical analysis from a medico-legal perspective of some current authoritative UK clinical guidelines in orthodontics. Two clinical guidelines have been produced by the Royal College of Surgeons of England and four by the British Orthodontic Society. Each guideline is published with the analysis immediately following it. Following recent UK case law (Bolitho v City & Hackney Health Authority, 1997) which allows the courts to choose between two bodies of responsible expert medical opinion where they feel one opinion is not 'logical', it is likely that the UK courts will increasingly turn to authoritative clinical guidelines to assist them in judging whether or not an appropriate standard of care has been achieved in medical negligence cases. It is thus important for clinicians to be aware of the recommendations of such guidelines, and if these are not followed the reasons should be discussed with the patient and recorded in the clinical case notes. This article attempts to highlight aspects of the guidelines that have medico-legal implications. (+info)
Outpatient CAPD catheter salvage for persistent exit-site/tunnel infection.
BACKGROUND: Partial replantation (i.e. replacement of the extraperitoneal portion of the catheter with creation of a new subcutaneous tunnel) has been suggested to avoid catheter removal in patients with persistent exit-site/tunnel infection (ESTI). However, published experience with this technique is limited. METHODS: Partial replantation was performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia for seven patients with persistent ESTI of >3 months duration. All patients resumed CAPD immediately following surgery. RESULTS: One patient had dialysate leakage less than 1 week after surgery that required catheter removal. The other patients had no complications and mean catheter survival following surgery was 7. 7 months (range 3.5-13 months). There was no recurrence of ESTI after surgery, although two patients presented with exit-site infection unrelated to the initial episode (i.e. different organism, long latency). Three other patients presented with episodes of peritonitis unrelated to surgery (i.e. delay >1 month) or ESTI (i.e. different organism). CONCLUSIONS: Partial replantation allows significant prolongation of catheter survival without major complications or interruption of CAPD. This novel procedure appears to be an appropriate alternative to catheter removal for the management of persistent ESTI. However, further studies are needed to prospectively compare partial replantation with catheter removal. (+info)
Household members of hepatitis C virus-infected people in Hafizabad, Pakistan: infection by injections from health care providers.
Household members of people with hepatitis C are at increased risk of HCV infection. The prevalence and routes of transmission of HCV to household members in Hafizabad, Pakistan were investigated. Household members of 24 index cases were given a risk factor questionnaire, tested for HCV infection, and the risk factors between the infected and uninfected were compared. Twelve of 74 household members (16.2%) were seropositive for HCV antibody. This was 2(1/2) times the rate of infection in the general population (OR = 2.8; P = 0.01). None of the routes of transmission studied within the household was associated with an increased risk. Household members who received more than 4 injections per year were 11.9 times more likely to be infected than those who had not (P = 0.016). In Hafizabad, the greatest risk for HCV infection to household members of infected people is injections given by health-care workers rather than household contact with infected persons. (+info)
Safety of immunization injections in Africa: not simply a problem of logistics.
In 1995, the WHO Regional Office for Africa launched a logistics project to address the four main areas of immunization logistics: the cold chain, transport, vaccine supply and quality, and the safety of injections in the countries of the region. The impact of this logistic approach on immunization injection safety was evaluated through surveys of injection procedures and an analysis of the injection materials (e.g. sterilizable or disposable syringes) chosen by the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) and those actually seen to be used. Re-use of injection materials without sterilization, accidental needle-stick injuries among health care workers, and injection-related abscesses in patients were common in countries in the WHO African Region. Few health centres used time-steam saturation-temperature (TST) indicators to check the quality of sterilization and, in many centres, the injection equipment was boiled instead of being steam sterilized. Facilities for the proper disposal of used materials were rarely present. Although the official EPI choice was to use sterilizable equipment, use of a combination of sterilizable and disposable equipment was observed in the field. Unsafe injection practices in these countries were generally due to a failure to integrate nursing practices and public awareness with injection safety issues, and an absence of the influence of EPI managers on health care service delivery. Holistic rather than logistic approaches should be adopted to achieve safe injections in immunization, in the broader context of promoting safe vaccines and safety of all injections. (+info)
An outbreak of hepatitis B associated with reusable subdermal electroencephalogram electrodes. Hepatitis B Outbreak Investigation Team.
BACKGROUND: In early 1996 an outbreak of hepatitis B was detected among patients who attended an electroencephalogram (EEG) clinic in Toronto operated by a neurologist. In this article we report the results of an investigation conducted to determine the extent and source of the outbreak. METHODS: Notifications were sent to 18 567 patients who had attended any of 6 EEG clinics operated by the neurologist between 1990 and 1996 asking them to see their physician to be tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection; 2957 envelopes were returned. Of the remaining 15 610 patients, results of laboratory tests were available for 10 244 (65.6%). A detailed follow-up of patients with newly acquired hepatitis B and those with chronic infection (carriers) was conducted. Viral DNA sequencing was used to compare strains of available HBV isolates. RESULTS: A total of 75 patients were identified in whom hepatitis B developed between 1991 and 1996; all of them had had at least one EEG performed in which reusable subdermal electrodes had been used. No cases were detected among patients who participated only in sleep studies, for which disk electrodes had been used. The peak rate of HBV infection (18.2 cases per 1000 person-EEGs) occurred in 1995. One technician performed all of the EEGs at the clinics and was found to be positive for hepatitis B e antigen. DNA sequencing confirmed that the virus isolated from the technician was identical to the virus isolated in 4 cases of hepatitis B tested. Infection control procedures were found to be inadequate. INTERPRETATION: The hepatitis B outbreak was a result of a common source of infection, the technologist, and inadequate infection control practices. Reusable subdermal EEG electrodes were the likely vehicles of transmission. Health care workers should follow recommended infection control practices and be vaccinated against hepatitis B. (+info)
Biological tissue adhesive for multiple use in the accident and emergency department.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the strength of the glue and microbial contamination over 28 days from opening a vial of tissue adhesive in the accident and emergency setting, and to quantify cost savings of repeated use of the vials. METHOD: (1) Strips of reinforced nylon and a specially constructed piece of apparatus designed to measure the force at which the glue gave way were used to measure the strength of the tissue adhesive at various times after the glue was opened to assess if the glue strength deteriorated over time. (2) Microbial contamination of the glue was assessed. RESULTS: There was no deterioration in the glue strength over time. There was no evidence of microbial contamination of the glue. CONCLUSION: Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive can safely be reused for a period of 28 days after opening with no risk of degradation of glue strength or contamination with micro-organisms. In our department this represents a potential saving of l5400 per year. (+info)