Reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method for estrogen determination in equine biological samples.
Equine unsaturated estrogens are the main components of brand formulations indicated for hormonal replacement therapy in both hypogonadic and postmenopausal women. These hormones are produced by the fetoplacental unit during equine gestation. A method is described for the quantitative determination of equilenin (EL), equilin (EQ), 17alpha-dihydroequilin (17dEQ), and estrone (El) in the plasma of a pregnant mare. Blood samples are obtained weekly during pregnancy by jugular venipuncture using sodium ethylenediaminetetracetic as the anticoagulant. For the quantitation of these estrogens, plasma is submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis followed by liquid-liquid extraction. A high-performance liquid chromatographic system equipped with a UV detector set at 220 nm and an ODS Hypersil column is used. The method met precision, specificity, and accuracy requirements. The hormonal levels determined in one target mare throughout pregnancy were 97.91 to 449.13, 116.47 to 266.02, 74.92 to 235.54, and 84.26 to 300.03 ng/mL, reaching a maximum towards the 25th, 20th, 33rd, and 27th weeks, respectively, for E1, EL, EQ, and 17dEQ. The method was successfully tested by quantitating these estrogens in the plasma from a pregnant mare. Its applicability to the study of estrogen bioavailability and bioequivalence is suggested. (+info)
The nuclear dehydrogenation of steroids by intestinal bacteria.
We have postulated that bacteria able to dehydrogenate the bile-acid nucleus are important in the aetiology of cancer of the colon. In this paper we report on screening for the ability to carry out two such reactions. The relevant enzymes are produced by a high proportion of strains of Clostridium paraputrificum, C. tertium and C. indolis, and by small numbers of strains in other clostridial species, but not by organisms of the other genera tested. Strains able to dehydrogenate the bile-acid nucleus represent a high proportion of the lecithinase-negative clostridia isolated from faeces of people living in Britain but a low proportion of those from people living in Uganda or Hong Kong. (+info)
Mutagenic events induced by 4-hydroxyequilin in supF shuttle vector plasmid propagated in human cells.
Increased incidence of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers are observed in women receiving estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Equilin and equilenin are the major components of the widely prescribed drug used for ERT. These equine estrogens are metabolized primarily to 4-hydroxyequilin (4-OHEQ) and 4-hydroxyequilenin, respectively, which are autoxidized to react with DNA, resulting in the various DNA damages. To explore the mutagenic potential of equine estrogen metabolites, a double-stranded pMY189 shuttle vector carrying a bacteria suppressor tRNA gene, supF, was exposed to 4-OHEQ and transfected into human fibroblast. Plasmids containing mutations in the supF gene were detected with indicator bacteria and mutated colonies obtained were analyzed by automatic DNA sequencing. The proportion of plasmids with the mutated supF gene was increased dose-dependently. The majority of the 4-OHEQ-induced mutations were base substitutions (78%); another 22% were deletions and insertions. Among the base substitutions, 56% were single base substitutions and 19% were multiple base substitutions. The majority (86%) of the 4-OHEQ-induced single base substitutions occurred at the C:G site. C:G --> G:C and C:G --> A:T mutations were detected preferentially with lesser numbers of C:G --> T:A transitions. Sixty-two percent of base substitutions were observed particularly at C:G pairs in (5')-TC/AG-(5') sequences. Using (32)P-post-labeling/gel electrophoresis analysis, 4-OHEN-dC was a major adduct, followed by lesser amounts of 4-OHEN-dA adduct. Mutations observed at C:G pairs may result from 4-OHEN-dC adduct. These results indicated that 4-OHEQ is mutagenic, generating mutations primarily at C:G pairs in (5')-TC/AG-(5') sequences. (+info)
Mechanism of translesion synthesis past an equine estrogen-DNA adduct by Y-family DNA polymerases.
4-Hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN)-dC is a major, potentially mutagenic DNA adduct induced by equine estrogens used for hormone replacement therapy. To study the miscoding property of 4-OHEN-dC and the involvement of Y-family human DNA polymerases (pols) eta, kappa and iota in that process, we incorporated 4-OHEN-dC into oligodeoxynucleotides and used them as templates in primer extension reactions catalyzed by pol eta, kappa and iota. Pol eta inserted dAMP opposite 4-OHEN-dC, accompanied by lesser amounts of dCMP and dTMP incorporation and base deletion. Pol kappa promoted base deletions as well as direct incorporation of dAMP and dCMP. Pol iota worked in conjunction with pol kappa, but not with pol eta, at a replication fork stalled by the adduct, resulting in increased dTMP incorporation. Our results provide a direct evidence that Y-family DNA pols can switch with one another during synthesis past the lesion. No direct incorporation of dGMP, the correct base, was observed with Y-family enzymes. The miscoding potency of 4-OHEN-dC may be associated with the development of reproductive cancers observed in women receiving hormone replacement therapy. (+info)
Analysis of steroidal estrogens as pyridine-3-sulfonyl derivatives by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.
Sulfonyl chlorides substituted with functional groups having high proton affinity can serve as derivatization reagents to enhance the sensitivity for steroidal estrogens in liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The most commonly used reagent for derivatization of estrogens for LC-ESI-MS/MS is dansyl chloride. In this study, we compared dansyl chloride, 1,2-dimethylimidazole-4-sulfonyl (DMIS) chloride, pyridine-3-sulfonyl (PS) chloride, and 4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)benzenesulfonyl (PBS) chloride for derivatization of 17beta-estradiol (E2) prior to LC-ESI-MS/MS. The product ion spectra of the dansyl and DMIS derivatives were dominated by ions representing derivatization reagent moieties. In contrast, the product ion spectrum of the PS derivative of E2 and, to a lesser extent, the PBS derivative, showed analyte-specific fragment ions. Derivatization with PS chloride was therefore chosen for further investigation. The product ion spectrum of the PS derivative of E2 showed intense ions at m/z 272, assigned to the radical E2 cation, and at m/z 350, attributed to the loss of SO(2) from the [M+H](+) ion. Third-stage mass spectrometry of the PS derivative of E2 with isolation and collisional activation of the m/z 272 ion resulted in steroid C and D ring cleavages analogous to those observed in electron ionization mass spectrometry. The product ion spectra of the PS derivatives of estrone, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, equilin, and equilenin showed similar estrogen-specific ions. Using derivatization with PS chloride, we developed an LC-ESI-MS/MS method with multiple reaction monitoring of primary and confirmatory precursor-to-product ion transitions for the determination of E2 in serum. (+info)
NMR and computational studies of stereoisomeric equine estrogen-derived DNA cytidine adducts in oligonucleotide duplexes: opposite orientations of diastereomeric forms.
Molecular clustering of endometrial carcinoma based on estrogen-induced gene expression.
Identification of biomarkers potentially provides prognostic information that can help guide clinical decision-making. Given the relationship between estrogen exposure and endometrial cancer, especially low grade endometrioid carcinoma, we hypothesized that high expression of genes induced by estrogen would identify low risk endometrioid endometrial cancers. cDNA microarray and qRT-PCR verification were used to identify six genes that are highly induced by estrogen in the endometrium. These estrogen-induced biomarkers were quantified in 72 endometrial carcinomas by qRT-PCR. Unsupervised cluster analysis was performed, with expression data correlated to tumor characteristics. Time to recurrence by cluster was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to determine the potential clinical utility of the biomarker panel to predict prognosis. Expression of all genes was higher in endometrioid carcinomas compared to non-endometrioid carcinomas. Unsupervised cluster analysis revealed two distinct groups based on gene expression. The high expression cluster was characterized by lower age, higher BMI, and low grade endometrioid histology. The low expression cluster had a recurrence rate 4.35 times higher than the high expression cluster. ROC analysis allowed for the prediction of stage and grade with a false negative rate of 4.8% based on level of gene expression in endometrioid tumors. We have therefore identified a panel of estrogen-induced genes that have potential utility in predicting endometrial cancer stage and recurrence risk. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that biomarker analysis may play a role in clinical decision making for the therapy of women with endometrial cancer. (+info)
Quantitative detection of 4-hydroxyequilenin-DNA adducts in mammalian cells using an immunoassay with a novel monoclonal antibody.