Nucleoside transport in human colonic epithelial cell lines: evidence for two Na+-independent transport systems in T84 and Caco-2 cells.
RT-PCR of RNA isolated from monolayers of the human colonic epithelial cell lines T84 and Caco-2 demonstrated the presence of mRNA for the two cloned Na+-independent equilibrative nucleoside transporters, ENT1 and ENT2, but not for the cloned Na+-dependent concentrative nucleoside transporters, CNT1 and CNT2. Uptake of [3H]uridine by cell monolayers in balanced Na+-containing and Na+-free media confirmed the presence of only Na+-independent nucleoside transport mechanisms. This uptake was decreased by 70-75% in the presence of 1 microM nitrobenzylthioinosine, a concentration that completely inhibits ENT1, and was completely blocked by the addition of 10 microM dipyridamole, a concentration that inhibits both ENT1 and ENT2. These findings indicate the presence in T84 and Caco-2 cells of two functional Na+-independent equilibrative nucleoside transporters, ENT1 and ENT2. (+info)
Kinetic and pharmacological properties of cloned human equilibrative nucleoside transporters, ENT1 and ENT2, stably expressed in nucleoside transporter-deficient PK15 cells. Ent2 exhibits a low affinity for guanosine and cytidine but a high affinity for inosine.
We stably transfected the cloned human equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 and 2 (hENT1 and hENT2) into nucleoside transporter-deficient PK15NTD cells. Although hENT1 and hENT2 are predicted to be 50-kDa proteins, hENT1 runs as 40 kDa and hENT2 migrates as 50 and 47 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Peptide N-glycosidase F and endoglycosidase H deglycosylate hENT1 to 37 kDa and hENT2 to 45 kDa. With hENT1 being more sensitive, there is a 7000-fold and 71-fold difference in sensitivity to nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) (IC(50), 0.4 +/- 0.1 nM versus 2.8 +/- 0.3 microM) and dipyridamole (IC(50), 5.0 +/- 0.9 nM versus 356 +/- 13 nM), respectively. [(3)H]NBMPR binds to ENT1 cells with a high affinity K(d) of 0.377 +/- 0.098 nM, and each ENT1 cell has 34,000 transporters with a turnover number of 46 molecules/s for uridine. Although both transporters are broadly selective, hENT2 is a generally low affinity nucleoside transporter with 2.6-, 2.8-, 7. 7-, and 19.3-fold lower affinity than hENT1 for thymidine, adenosine, cytidine, and guanosine, respectively. In contrast, the affinity of hENT2 for inosine is 4-fold higher than hENT1. The nucleobase hypoxanthine inhibits [(3)H]uridine uptake by hENT2 but has minimal effect on hENT1. Taken together, these results suggest that hENT2 might be important in transporting adenosine and its metabolites (inosine and hypoxanthine) in tissues such as skeletal muscle where ENT2 is predominantly expressed. (+info)
Retroviral transfer of the hENT2 nucleoside transporter cDNA confers broad-spectrum antifolate resistance in murine bone marrow cells.
Antifolate drugs such as methotrexate are commonly used in cancer chemotherapy. It may be possible to increase the antitumor activity of antifolates by the coadministration of drugs that inhibit nucleoside transport, thereby blocking the capacity of tumor cells to salvage nucleotide precursors. An important limitation of this approach is severe myelosuppression caused by many of these drug combinations. For this reason, we have developed a gene therapy strategy to protect bone marrow cells against combined treatment with antifolates and nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR), a potent inhibitor of the es nucleoside transporter. A retroviral vector (MeiIRG) was constructed that expressed the NBMPR-insensitive ei transporter, hypothesizing that transduced bone marrow cells would survive drug treatment because of the preservation of nucleoside salvage pathways. In vitro clonogenic assays confirmed that the MeiIRG vector did protect myeloid progenitors against the toxic effects of 3 different antifolates when each was combined with NBMPR. On testing this system in vivo, decreased myelosuppression was observed in mice transplanted with MeiIRG-transduced bone marrow cells and subsequently treated with trimetrexate and NBMPR-P. In these mice, significant increases were noted in absolute neutrophil count nadirs, reticulocyte indices, and the numbers of myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow. Furthermore, a survival advantage was associated with transfer of the MeiIRG vector, indicating that significant dose intensification was possible with this approach. In summary, the MeiIRG vector can decrease the toxicity associated with the combined use of antifolates and NBMPR-P and thereby may provide a strategy for simultaneously sensitizing tumor cells while protecting hematopoietic cells. (+info)
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of inhibitor-sensitive (mENT1) and inhibitor-resistant (mENT2) equilibrative nucleoside transporters from mouse brain.
Mammalian cells express at least two subtypes of equilibrative nucleoside transporters, i.e. ENT1 and ENT2, which can be distinguished functionally by their sensitivity and resistance respectively to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine. The ENT1 transporters exhibit distinctive species differences in their sensitivities to inhibition by dipyridamole, dilazep and draflazine (human>mouse>rat). A comparison of the ENT1 structures in the three species would facilitate the identification of the regions involved in the actions of these cardioprotective agents. We now report the molecular cloning and functional expression of the murine (m)ENT1 and mENT2 transporters. mENT1 and mENT2 encode proteins containing 458 and 456 residues respectively, with a predicted 11-transmembrane-domain topology. mENT1 has 88% and 78% amino acid identity with rat ENT1 and human ENT1 respectively; mENT2 is more highly conserved, with 94% and 88% identity with rat ENT2 and human ENT2 respectively. We have also isolated two additional distinct cDNAs that encode proteins similar to mENT1; these probably represent distinct mENT1 isoforms or alternative splicing products. One cDNA encodes a protein with two additional amino acids (designated mENT1b) that adds a potential protein kinase CK2 phosphorylation site in the central intracellular loop of the transporter, and is similar, in this regard, to the human and rat ENT1 orthologues. The other cDNA has a 5'-untranslated region sequence that is distinct from that of full-length mENT1. Microinjection of mENT1, mENT1b or mENT2 cRNA into Xenopus oocytes resulted in enhanced uptake of [(3)H]uridine by the oocytes relative to that seen in water-injected controls. mENT1-mediated, but not mENT2-mediated, [(3)H]uridine uptake was inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine and dilazep. Dipyridamole inhibited both mENT1 and mENT2, but was significantly more effective against mENT1. Adenosine inhibited both systems with a similar potency, as did a range of other purine and pyrimidine nucleosides. These results are compatible with the known characteristics of the native mENT1 and mENT2 transporters. (+info)
Identification of Cys140 in helix 4 as an exofacial cysteine residue within the substrate-translocation channel of rat equilibrative nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR)-insensitive nucleoside transporter rENT2.
The human and rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins hENT1, rENT1, hENT2 and rENT2 belong to a family of integral membrane proteins with 11 potential transmembrane segments (TMs), and are distinguished functionally by differences in transport of nucleobases and sensitivity to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) and vasoactive drugs. In the present study, we have produced recombinant hENT1, rENT1, hENT2 and rENT2 in Xenopus oocytes and investigated uridine transport following exposure to the impermeant thiol-reactive reagent p-chloromercuriphenyl sulphonate (PCMBS). PCMBS caused reversible inhibition of uridine influx by rENT2, but had no effect on hENT1, hENT2 or rENT1. This difference correlated with the presence in rENT2 of a unique Cys residue (Cys(140)) in the outer half of TM4 that was absent from the other ENTs. Mutation of Cys(140) to Ser produced a functional protein (rENT2/C140S) that was insensitive to inhibition by PCMBS, identifying Cys(140) as the exofacial Cys residue in rENT2 responsible for PCMBS inhibition. Uridine protected wild-type rENT2 against PCMBS inhibition, suggesting that Cys(140) in TM4 lies within or is closely adjacent to the substrate-translocation channel of the transporter. TM4 has been shown previously to be within a structural domain (TMs 3-6) responsible for interactions with NBMPR, vasoactive drugs and nucleobases. (+info)
Characterization of nucleoside transport systems in cultured rat epididymal epithelium.
The nucleoside transport systems in cultured epididymal epithelium were characterized and found to be similar between the proximal (caput and corpus) and distal (cauda) regions of the epididymis. Functional studies revealed that 70% of the total nucleoside uptake was Na(+) dependent, while 30% was Na(+) independent. The Na(+)-independent nucleoside transport was mediated by both the equilibrative nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR)-sensitive system (40%) and the NBMPR-insensitive system (60%), which was supported by a biphasic dose response to NBMPR inhibition. The Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]uridine uptake was selectively inhibited 80% by purine nucleosides, indicating that the purine nucleoside-selective N1 system is predominant. Since Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]guanosine uptake was inhibited by thymidine by 20% and Na(+)-dependent [(3)H]thymidine uptake was broadly inhibited by purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, this suggested the presence of the broadly selective N3 system accounting for 20% of Na(+)-dependent nucleoside uptake. Results of RT-PCR confirmed the presence of mRNA for equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1, ENT2, and concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) 2 and the absence of CNT1. It is suggested that the nucleoside transporters in epididymis may be important for sperm maturation by regulating the extracellular concentration of adenosine in epididymal plasma. (+info)
Nucleoside transporter subtype expression: effects on potency of adenosine kinase inhibitors.
1. Adenosine kinase (AK) inhibitors can enhance adenosine levels and potentiate adenosine receptor activation. As the AK inhibitors 5' iodotubercidin (ITU) and 5-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine (NH(2)dAdo) are nucleoside analogues, we hypothesized that nucleoside transporter subtype expression can affect the potency of these inhibitors in intact cells. 3. Three nucleoside transporter subtypes that mediate adenosine permeation of rat cells have been characterized and cloned: equilibrative transporters rENT1 and rENT2 and concentrative transporter rCNT2. We stably transfected rat C6 glioma cells, which express rENT2 nucleoside transporters, with rENT1 (rENT1-C6 cells) or rCNT2 (rCNT2-C6 cells) nucleoside transporters. 3. We tested the effects of ITU and NH(2)dAdo on [(3)H]-adenosine uptake and conversion to [(3)H]-adenine nucleotides in the three cell types. NH(2)dAdo did not show any cell type selectivity. In contrast, ITU showed significant inhibition of [(3)H]-adenosine uptake and [(3)H]-adenine nucleotide formation at concentrations < or =100 nM in rENT1-C6 cells, while concentrations > or =3 microM were required for C6 or rCNT2-C6 cells. 4. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR; 100 nM), a selective inhibitor of rENT1, abolished the effects of nanomolar concentrations of ITU in rENT1-C6 cells. 5. This study demonstrates that the effects of ITU, but not NH(2)dAdo, in whole cell assays are dependent upon nucleoside transporter subtype expression. Thus, cellular and tissue differences in expression of nucleoside transporter subtypes may affect the pharmacological actions of some AK inhibitors. (+info)
Mutation of residue 33 of human equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 and 2 alters sensitivity to inhibition of transport by dilazep and dipyridamole.
Human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENT) 1 and 2 differ in that hENT1 is inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of dipyridamole and dilazep, whereas hENT2 is 2 and 3 orders of magnitude less sensitive, respectively. When a yeast expression plasmid containing the hENT1 cDNA was randomly mutated and screened by phenotypic complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify mutants with reduced sensitivity to dilazep, clones with a point mutation that converted Met33 to Ile (hENT1-M33I) were obtained. Characterization of the mutant protein in S. cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that the mutant had less than one-tenth the sensitivity to dilazep and dipyridamole than wild type hENT1, with no change in nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside (NBMPR) sensitivity or apparent uridine affinity. To determine whether the reciprocal mutation in hENT2 (Ile33 to Met) also altered sensitivity to dilazep and dipyridamole, hENT2-I33M was created by site-directed mutagenesis. Although the resulting mutant (hENT2-I33M) displayed >10-fold higher dilazep and dipyridamole sensitivity and >8-fold higher uridine affinity compared with wild type hENT2, it retained insensitivity to NBMPR. These data established that mutation of residue 33 (Met versus Ile) of hENT1 and hENT2 altered the dilazep and dipyridamole sensitivities in both proteins, suggesting that a common region of inhibitor interaction has been identified. (+info)