Crystal structure of delta(5)-3-ketosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas testosteroni in complex with equilenin settles the correct hydrogen bonding scheme for transition state stabilization.
Delta(5)-3-Ketosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas testosteroni has been intensively studied as a prototype to understand an enzyme-catalyzed allylic isomerization. Asp(38) (pK(a) approximately 4.7) was identified as the general base abstracting the steroid C4beta proton (pK(a) approximately 12.7) to form a dienolate intermediate. A key and common enigmatic issue involved in the proton abstraction is the question of how the energy required for the unfavorable proton transfer can be provided at the active site of the enzyme and/or how the thermodynamic barrier can be drastically reduced. Answering this question has been hindered by the existence of two differently proposed enzyme reaction mechanisms. The 2.26 A crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with a reaction intermediate analogue equilenin reveals clearly that both the Tyr(14) OH and Asp(99) COOH provide direct hydrogen bonds to the oxyanion of equilenin. The result negates the catalytic dyad mechanism in which Asp(99) donates the hydrogen bond to Tyr(14), which in turn is hydrogen bonded to the steroid. A theoretical calculation also favors the doubly hydrogen-bonded system over the dyad system. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of several mutant enzymes indicate that the Tyr(14) OH forms a low barrier hydrogen bond with the dienolic oxyanion of the intermediate. (+info)
High-throughput sample preparation and analysis using 96-well membrane solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of steroids in human urine.
A 96-well solid-phase extraction (SPE) system is used to rapidly prepare human urine samples for high-throughput quantitative analysis of two steroids, equilenin and progesterone, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using deuterated estrone as the internal standard. We define high-throughput here as analysis of 384 samples in a 24 h period. A total of 384 samples and standards were extracted by an individual in one day and subsequently analyzed within a 24 h period. The inter- and intratray accuracy and precision obtained over the course of these injections was within 8% coefficient of variation when analyzed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using positive ion detection. A semiautomated sample processing workstation was used to add internal standard and then process 96 samples at a time. The recovery of the analytes from the SPE was approximately 85%. The accuracy and precision obtained was comparable to that ordinarily obtained using manual sample preparation techniques. (+info)
Detection of large pKa perturbations of an inhibitor and a catalytic group at an enzyme active site, a mechanistic basis for catalytic power of many enzymes.
Delta(5)-3-Ketosteroid isomerase catalyzes cleavage and formation of a C-H bond at a diffusion-controlled limit. By determining the crystal structures of the enzyme in complex with each of three different inhibitors and by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic investigation, we evidenced the ionization of a hydroxyl group (pK(a) approximately 16.5) of an inhibitor, which forms a low barrier hydrogen bond (LBHB) with a catalytic residue Tyr(14) (pK(a) approximately 11.5), and the protonation of the catalytic residue Asp(38) with pK(a) of approximately 4.5 at pH 6.7 in the interaction with a carboxylate group of an inhibitor. The perturbation of the pK(a) values in both cases arises from the formation of favorable interactions between inhibitors and catalytic residues. The results indicate that the pK(a) difference between catalytic residue and substrate can be significantly reduced in the active site environment as a result of the formation of energetically favorable interactions during the course of enzyme reactions. The reduction in the pK(a) difference should facilitate the abstraction of a proton and thereby eliminate a large fraction of activation energy in general acid/base enzyme reactions. The pK(a) perturbation provides a mechanistic ground for the fast reactivity of many enzymes and for the understanding of how some enzymes are able to extract a proton from a C-H group with a pK(a) value as high as approximately 30. (+info)
Reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method for estrogen determination in equine biological samples.
Equine unsaturated estrogens are the main components of brand formulations indicated for hormonal replacement therapy in both hypogonadic and postmenopausal women. These hormones are produced by the fetoplacental unit during equine gestation. A method is described for the quantitative determination of equilenin (EL), equilin (EQ), 17alpha-dihydroequilin (17dEQ), and estrone (El) in the plasma of a pregnant mare. Blood samples are obtained weekly during pregnancy by jugular venipuncture using sodium ethylenediaminetetracetic as the anticoagulant. For the quantitation of these estrogens, plasma is submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis followed by liquid-liquid extraction. A high-performance liquid chromatographic system equipped with a UV detector set at 220 nm and an ODS Hypersil column is used. The method met precision, specificity, and accuracy requirements. The hormonal levels determined in one target mare throughout pregnancy were 97.91 to 449.13, 116.47 to 266.02, 74.92 to 235.54, and 84.26 to 300.03 ng/mL, reaching a maximum towards the 25th, 20th, 33rd, and 27th weeks, respectively, for E1, EL, EQ, and 17dEQ. The method was successfully tested by quantitating these estrogens in the plasma from a pregnant mare. Its applicability to the study of estrogen bioavailability and bioequivalence is suggested. (+info)
Regulation of human apolipoprotein A-I gene expression by equine estrogens.
Estrogen replacement therapies, such as conjugated equine estrogen (CEE, Premarin), reduce the risk of coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women. In the present study, a HepG2 stable cell line (HepG2/S) that harbors a luciferase reporter gene cassette with the human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) promoter region was used to examine the activity of CEE components in modulating human apoA-I promoter activity. A number of estrogens modulated apoA-I promoter activity, with equilenin (Eqn) being the most potent. Eqn produced a 3-fold increase in apoA-I promoter activity and a similar increase in apoA-I mRNA without affecting its degradation rate. Nuclear runoff assays indicated that the transcription rate of the apoA-I gene was increased 2.5-fold in Eqn-treated cells. When HepG2/S cells were exposed to Eqn, apoA-I protein secretion increased by 80%, whereas the level of secreted apoA-II remained unchanged. Transient transfection studies with human apoA-I promoter constructs derived from pGL3-luciferase reporter plasmid were used to identify the cis-acting element involved in Eqn-mediated induction. The results demonstrated that the apoA-I electrophile/antioxidant response element (EpRE/ARE) might be responsible for the increase in apoA-I promoter activity by Eqn. Cotransfection experiments using estrogen receptor (ERalpha and/or ERbeta) expression vectors have indicated that neither receptor can potentiate the Eqn-mediated induction of apoA-I promoter activity. In addition, mobility shift analysis using antibody against either ERalpha or ERbeta cannot detect the presence of these receptors in the DNA-protein complex. The data indicate that Eqn can induce the promoter activity of the human apoA-I gene, leading to an increase in apoA-I mRNA levels and apoA-I protein secretion through an ER-independent pathway involving apoA-I EpRE/ARE. (+info)
The nuclear dehydrogenation of steroids by intestinal bacteria.
We have postulated that bacteria able to dehydrogenate the bile-acid nucleus are important in the aetiology of cancer of the colon. In this paper we report on screening for the ability to carry out two such reactions. The relevant enzymes are produced by a high proportion of strains of Clostridium paraputrificum, C. tertium and C. indolis, and by small numbers of strains in other clostridial species, but not by organisms of the other genera tested. Strains able to dehydrogenate the bile-acid nucleus represent a high proportion of the lecithinase-negative clostridia isolated from faeces of people living in Britain but a low proportion of those from people living in Uganda or Hong Kong. (+info)
The conserved cis-Pro39 residue plays a crucial role in the proper positioning of the catalytic base Asp38 in ketosteroid isomerase from Comamonas testosteroni.
KSI (ketosteroid isomerase) from Comamonas testosteroni is a homodimeric enzyme that catalyses the allylic isomerization of Delta5-3-ketosteroids to their conjugated Delta4-isomers at a reaction rate equivalent to the diffusion-controlled limit. Based on the structural analysis of KSI at a high resolution, the conserved cis-Pro39 residue was proposed to be involved in the proper positioning of Asp38, a critical catalytic residue, since the residue was found not only to be structurally associated with Asp38, but also to confer a structural rigidity on the local active-site geometry consisting of Asp38, Pro39, Val40, Gly41 and Ser42 at the flexible loop between b-strands B1 and B2. In order to investigate the structural role of the conserved cis-Pro39 residue near the active site of KSI, Pro39 was replaced with alanine or glycine. The free energy of activation for the P39A and P39G mutants increased by 10.5 and 16.7 kJ/mol (2.5 and 4.0 kcal/mol) respectively, while DG(U)H2O (the free-energy change for unfolding in the absence of urea at 25.00+/-0.02 degrees C) decreased by 31.0 and 35.6 kJ/mol (7.4 and 8.5 kcal/mol) respectively, compared with the wild-type enzyme. The crystal structure of the P39A mutant in complex with d-equilenin [d-1,3,5(10),6,8-estrapentaen-3-ol-17-one], a reaction intermediate analogue, determined at 2.3 A (0.23 nm) resolution revealed that the P39A mutation significantly disrupted the proper orientations of both d-equilenin and Asp38, as well as the local active-site geometry near Asp38, which resulted in substantial decreases in the activity and stability of KSI. Upon binding 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonic acid, the fluorescence intensities of the P39A and P39G mutants were increased drastically, with maximum wavelengths blue-shifted upon binding, indicating that the mutations might alter the hydrophobic active site of KSI. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the conserved cis-Pro39 residue plays a crucial role in the proper positioning of the critical catalytic base Asp38 and in the structural integrity of the active site in KSI. (+info)
Small exterior hydrophobic cluster contributes to conformational stability and steroid binding in ketosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas putida biotype B.
A structural motif called the small exterior hydrophobic cluster (SEHC) has been proposed to explain the stabilizing effect mediated by solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues; however, little is known about its biological roles. Unusually, in Delta(5)-3-ketosteroid isomerase from Pseudomonas putida biotype B (KSI-PI) Trp92 is exposed to solvent on the protein surface, forming a SEHC with the side-chains of Leu125 and Val127. In order to identify the role of the SEHC in KSI-PI, mutants of those amino acids associated with the SEHC were prepared. The W92A, L125A/V127A, and W92A/L125A/V127A mutations largely decreased the conformational stability, while the L125F/V127F mutation slightly increased the stability, indicating that hydrophobic packing by the SEHC is important in maintaining stability. The crystal structure of W92A revealed that the decreased stability caused by the removal of the bulky side-chain of Trp92 could be attributed to the destabilization of the surface hydrophobic layer consisting of a solvent-exposed beta-sheet. Consistent with the structural data, the binding affinities for three different steroids showed that the surface hydrophobic layer stabilized by SEHC is required for KSI-PI to efficiently recognize hydrophobic steroids. Unfolding kinetics based on analysis of the Phi(U) value also indicated that the SEHC in the native state was resistant to the unfolding process, despite its solvent-exposed site. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the SEHC plays a key role in the structural integrity that is needed for KSI-PI to stabilize the hydrophobic surface conformation and thereby contributes both to the overall conformational stability and to the binding of hydrophobic steroids in water solution. (+info)